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Chapter 5

PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Intensify, Nicotine, Caffeine


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Chapter
5

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Chapter 5 Psychology Notes
Sociology Lecture Number:
Date: Nov. 9, 2015
CHAPTER 5-
Module 5.1
CONCISENSES: Person’s subjective awareness, including thought, perceptions,
experiences of the world, and self-awareness
Conciseness can wonder when we are dreaming whereas when we are more
focused on a task, we seem to be more in control of our conciseness
What is Sleep?
Life involves patterns that cycle within days, weeks, month or years
CIRCANNUAL RHYTHM: “Yearly cycle”
INFRADIAN RHYTHM, which is a rhythm that occurs over a period of time longer
than a day.
ULTRADIAN: Occurs more frequently
CIRCADIUN RHYTHM: internally driven daily cycles of approximately 24 hours
affecting psychological and behavioral processes
Sleep is an example of this pattern
What causes humans to adapt to these circadian rhythms?
ENTRAINMENT: When biological rhythms become synchronized to external
cues such as light , temperature or even a clock
We tend to be awake during daytime and sleep during the night
we are trained to believe that some parts of the day are associated with sleep and
others are not
ENDOGENOUS RHYTHM: Biological rhythms that are generated by our body
independent of external cues such as light
Stages of Sleep
PLOYSOMNOGRAPHY: A set of objective measurements used to examine
physiological variables during sleep
Common ones include thermometers, to measure body temperature, or electrical
sensors to measure muscle movement
ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG): Sleep cycles are more often defined
by the electroencephalogram, a device that measures brain waves using sensors
attached to the scalp

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Results of EEG is in the shape of waveform
As an individual begins to shift into sleep, waves start to become slower, larger
and more predictable
EEG signals during sleep moves through four different stages:
1. Brain waves slow down and become higher in amplitude (theta waves)
Breathing, blood pressure, and heart rate all decrease slightly as individual
begins to sleep. Still sensitive to noise at this stage
2. After ten minutes, sleeper enters stage 2. Stage two includes sleep
spindles (clusters of high frequency waves) and K complexes (groups of
larger amplitude waves) which are detected as periodic bursts of EEG
activity
3. 20 min after that, sleeper enters stage 3, in which brain waves continue
to slow down and assume a new form called delta waves (High amplitude
waves and low frequency)
4. Stage 4 is when sleeper enters deepest stage of sleep and will be very
hard to be awoken
After one hour of falling asleep, and completing stage four, sleep cycle goes in reverse
and we move back toward stage 1
After we go in reverse and reach stage 1, we do not reman in stage 1 sleep for long
anymore, we move into a unique stage known as REM sleep
REM SLEEP: Stage of sleep characterized by quickening brain waves, inhibited body
movement, and rapid eye movement.
Stage sometimes known as paradoxical stage because although we are asleep, the
EEG waves appear to represent a state of wakefulness
Why we need Sleep?
Theories of Sleep
RESTORE AND REPAIR HYPOTHESIS: The idea that the body needs to restore
energy levels and repair any wear and tear experienced during the day’s activities
sleep is a psychological and physical necessity, not just a way to relax
this theory does not account for all the reasons we sleep
PROTECT AND PRESERVE HYPOTHESIS: suggests two or more adaptive function
of sleep including preserving energy an protecting organism from harm
Some animals sleep during the day to protect themselves from predators
Humans sleep at night since we are at a disadvantage at night due to us being
quite dependent on our vision
What happens when we don’t get enough Sleep?
SLEEP DERIVATION: Occurs when an individual cannot or does not sleep
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Can be due to some eternal factors (not in control of) or some self inflicted factor
(studying for exam)
Impairments with sleep deprivation include: difficulty in multitasking,
maintaining attention for long period of times, incorporating new information
Problems associated with sleep deprivation: increase in physical illness, fmily
problems, substance overuse, academic problems
SLEEP DISPLACMEMENT: Occurs when an individual is prevented from sleeping at
the normal time lthought she may be able to sleep at other times of the day
Those who travel a lot experience sleep displacement because of jet lag
JET LAG: Discomfort a person feels when sleep cycles are out of
synchronization with light and darkness
It is often easier to adjust when travelling west, this is because when you tavel
west requires the person to stay up longer in the night in order to adjust to
person’s previous sleep timings. However, traveling east person must try to fall
asleep earlier than usual, which is difficult to do so.
Theories of dreaming
Dreams are mysterious and have captured imaginations for most of human history
Researchers that study dreams have discovered a pattern in males vs femail dreams
Females: larger number of negative dreams related to failure loss and frightening
animals
Males: most positive dreams including those related to magical abilities and
encounters with alien life
SIGMUND FREUD: Viewed dreams as an unconscious expression of wish fulfillment
Believed that humans have primal urges which are sometimes impractical or
unethical, hence we keep such urges suppressed
However, when we sleep we lose the power to suppress those urges
Imagery can take two forms:
MANIFEST CONTENT: Involves images and storylines that we dream about.
LATENT CONTENT: actual symbolic meaning of the dream built on suppressed
or sexual or aggressive urges
Activation-synthesis hypothesis
ACTIVATION-SYNTHESIS HYPOTHESIS: suggests that dreams arise from brain
activity originating from bursts of excitory messages from the pons, a part of the brain
stem
Circuits in the brain stem are activated during REM sleep.
Once these circuits are activated, areas of the limbic system involved in emotions,
sensations, and memories, including the amygdala and hippocampus, become
active.
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