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Chapter 7

PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Motor Learning, Elizabeth Loftus, Mnemonic

Course Code
Steve Joordens

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Psychology Notes
Sociology Lecture Number:
The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model
STORES: Retain information in memory without using it for any specific purpose sort of
like hard drives
Three stores include sensory memory, short term memory (STM) and Long term
memory (LTM)
CONTROL PROCESSES: Shift information from one memory store to another and are
represented by the arrows in the model
First information enters sensory memory through vision, hearing and
other sense and then a control process called ATTENTION selects which information
will be passed on to STM
Second, some but not all information from STM goes through ENCODING , the process
of storing information in the LTM
RETRIVAL brings information from LTM back into STM

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Sensory memory
SENSORY MEMORY: A memory store that holds perceptual information for a very
brief amount of time
ICONIC MEMORY: Visual form of sensory memory held for about one half to
one second
ECHOIC MEMORY: The auditory form of sensory memory held for a bit
longer, but only about five seconds
if our memory fades from sensory memory within seconds, then how can we have any
The answer is ATTENTION
Attention allows us to move a small amount of information from sensory memory
into STM for further processing
CHANGE BLINDNESS: relationship that describes the relationship between attention
and sensory memory
Two photographs are presented which are very similar, only a small difference
between them such as the colour difference. Each photo is shown quickly back
and forth and that little difference would have gone unnoticed unless the
experimenter is actually noticing and paying attention to that difference.
Short Term Memory
SHORT TERM MEMORY: Memory store with limited capacity and duration (less than
a minute)
Miller found out where participants were able to remember seven units of
CHUNKING: Organizing smaller units of information into larger more meaningful units
Experience plays a role in our ability to chunk large amounts of information so
that it fits into our STM
Long term Memory
LONG TERM MEMORY: Holds information for long periods of times if not
Has no capacity limits, all the information that gets encoded enters the long term
Not all information that enters STM is retained, a large portion of it is lost forever
Once the information enters the LTM, it must get roganised
Gets organized in two ways
1. Semantically: gets placed into categories that the item belongs to, ex. Cat will
belong with other animals such as dogs
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