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Chapter 8

chapter 8

13 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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Chapter 8 Memory
Overview of memory
Memory- the cognitive process of encoding, storing, and retrieving information
oEncoding- refers to the process of putting stimulus info into a form that can
be used by our memory system
oStorage- process of maintaining info in memory
oRetrieval- process of locating and using stored info
1949 Donald Hebb: Dual trace theory used the active/latent distinction to suggest
that the brain remembered information in 2 different ways
oInfo that is active ; neurons fire continuously
oHe thought it was like this bc of the feedback circuits of neurons; more
firing= stronger synaptic efficiency of circuit
The brain retains traces of an experience either in an active state or in latent
structural state
oLatent and inactivated state; the info is not always available; we dont always
actively think of the ppl we have met
oActive state; when youre highly conscious of your surroundings, you take
notice of the restaurants; all youre activities can be precisely described
1960- Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin suggested that memory has 3 forms
1.Sensory memory (deal w/ active traces of memory)
2.Short term memory (deal w/ active traces of memory)
3.Long term memory (deal w/ latent traces)
Sensory memory
a type of memory where we perceive physical things or physical features of a
stimulus that are stored in our memory
memory lasts for a very brief tine- a second or less
this type of memory is hard to distinguish btw memory and perception
contains all or most of the info we have just perceived
or a slight echo of what we heard
function: hold info long enough to become part of the next form of memory; short-
term memory
Short term memory
immediate type of memory that we have just perceived
memory capacity is limited in the number of items it can store and the duration
example: youre at the movies- youre in theatre 6
oyou just need to remember theatre 6 long enough to find the entrance
okeeping it active= repeating it
oinactive= talking to a friend in btw and buy food
info leaves short term permanently or it can go into long term memory by rehearsing
it enough times to go there
Long term memory
info perceived or represented is permanent or near permanent basis
www.notesolution.com
no known limits, relatively durable
long term memory occurs bc of physical changes in brain
*info that flows from one type of memory to the next = MODAL MODEL*
SENSORY MEMORY
info from here is stored long enough until it goes to short term memory
we are aware of sensory memory only when info is presented briefly so we can see its
after effects
oexample: thunderstorm- bright flash of light reveals a scene, we see things
before we recognize it
2 forms of sensory memory
oIconic (visual)
oEchoic (auditory) memory
ICONIC (VISUAL)
ICON = IMAGE
Briefly holds a visual representation of a scene that has just been perceived
Iconic AKA visible persistence
ob/c our Representation is closely tied to perception
whole report procedure: a method where participants are presented w/ visual
stimulis like flash cards and ppl have to recall as many letters or flash cards as they
could
partial report procedure: a method to determine the limitations iconic memory
may have; where there are delays after each flash card
odelays after each sound card = info fading before it could transfer to long term
memory
ECHOIC MEMORY (AUDITORY)
auditory sensory memory
sensory memory for sounds that we just perceive
we cant identify words until weve heard all of the sounds
oexample: HAR means nothing
oharvest is different from harbour
partial report procedures suggest that echoic memory last less than 4 seconds
orepeated patterns of random or white noise indicates that echoic memory can
last up to 20 seconds
SHORT TERM OR WORKING MEMORY
Short term memory- limited capacity; most info that enters is forgotten
Info can enter short term memory from either sensory memory or long term memory
Not all info is directly from long term memory
oIts first moved into short term memory, then recalled from long term
oShort term memory contains info were trying to encode info and when were
trying to retrieve it
Working memory- term used for short term memory that contains both new info
and info retrieved from long term memory
www.notesolution.com
oRepresents a sort of behaviour that takes place within our heads
oShows our ability to remember what we have just perceived and to think
about it in terms of what we already know
oUse it to remember what someone says at the beginning before the sentence
ends, or to look out for cars before we cross.
oBasically, use it to think about what we already know and to come to
conclusions on the basis of this knowledge
PRIMACY AND RECENCY EFFECTS
Primacy effects; our tendency to remember words at the beginning of the list
Recency effect; our tendency to remember words at the end of the list
They both are important; show the consequence of memory behaviour
Memory follows predictable patterns and is dependent on the contribution of
rehearsal and short term memory
What causes these effects?
Primacy effects; caused by the fact that words earlier in the list have the opportunity
to be reheard more than words in other parts
Recency effect; b/c words are at end of the list, were the last to be heard, they are
still available in short term memory
THE LIMITS OF WORKING MEMORY
John Brown and petersons conducted studies
after being presented w/ JRG, participants had to count backwards to prevent
rehearsal
Results show that when rehearsal was interrupted by backwards counting,
participants remained accessible in memory for only a few seconds; after 15-18 sec
delay- recall dropped to near 0
Conclusion: stimuli remain in working memory for less than 20 seconds unless they
are rehearsed
Unexpected distractions, like door bell rings while you have to remember a phone
number; you forget the number
Capacity of working memory: on avg ppl can remember 7 pcs of info at a time
BUT to remember to carry simple convos= chunking
oChunking- a process by which info is simplified by rules which make it easily
remembered once the rules are learned
oExample: remember 135792468
oIn chunks- we organize it and remember it better by the rules
Odd numbers and even numbers
Capacity of short term memory for verbal stuff: not measured in letters, syllables or words
limits depend on how much meaning the info has; if all 20 words are related and
flow, we remember it better rather than 20 random words that dont relate
VARITIES OF WORKING MEMORY
Working memory contain variety of sensory info
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 8 Memory Overview of memory Memory- the cognitive process of encoding, storing, and retrieving information o Encoding- refers to the process of putting stimulus info into a form that can be used by our memory system o Storage- process of maintaining info in memory o Retrieval- process of locating and using stored info 1949 Donald Hebb: Dual trace theory used the activelatent distinction to suggest that the brain remembered information in 2 different ways o Info that is active ; neurons fire continuously o He thought it was like this bc of the feedback circuits of neurons; more firing= stronger synaptic efficiency of circuit The brain retains traces of an experience either in an active state or in latent structural state o Latent and inactivated state; the info is not always available; we dont always actively think of the ppl we have met o Active state; when youre highly conscious of your surroundings, you take notice of the restaurants; all youre activities can be precisely described 1960- Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin suggested that memory has 3 forms 1. Sensory memory (deal w active traces of memory) 2. Short term memory (deal w active traces of memory) 3. Long term memory (deal w latent traces) Sensory memory a type of memory where we perceive physical things or physical features of a stimulus that are stored in our memory memory lasts for a very brief tine- a second or less this type of memory is hard to distinguish btw memory and perception contains all or most of the info we have just perceived or a slight echo of what we heard function: hold info long enough to become part of the next form of memory; short- term memory Short term memory immediate type of memory that we have just perceived memory capacity is limited in the number of items it can store and the duration example: youre at the movies- youre in theatre 6 o you just need to remember theatre 6 long enough to find the entrance o keeping it active= repeating it o inactive= talking to a friend in btw and buy food info leaves short term permanently or it can go into long term memory by rehearsing it enough times to go there Long term memory info perceived or represented is permanent or near permanent basis www.notesolution.com no known limits, relatively durable long term memory occurs bc of physical changes in brain *info that flows from one type of memory to the next = MODAL MODEL* SENSORY MEMORY info from here is stored long enough until it goes to short term memory we are aware of sensory memory only when info is presented briefly so we can see its after effects o example: thunderstorm- bright flash of light reveals a scene, we see things before we recognize it 2 forms of sensory memory o Iconic (visual) o Echoic (auditory) memory ICONIC (VISUAL) ICON = IMAGE Briefly holds a visual representation of a scene that has just been perceived Iconic AKA visible persistence o bc our Representation is closely tied to perception whole report procedure: a method where participants are presented w visual stimulis like flash cards and ppl have to recall as many letters or flash cards as they could partial report procedure: a method to determine the limitations iconic memory may have; where there are delays after each flash card o delays after each sound card = info fading before it could transfer to long term memory ECHOIC MEMORY (AUDITORY) auditory sensory memory sensory memory for sounds that we just perceive we cant identify words until weve heard all of the sounds o example: HAR means nothing o harvest is different from harbour partial report procedures suggest that echoic memory last less than 4 seconds o repeated patterns of random or white noise indicates that echoic memory can last up to 20 seconds SHORT TERM OR WORKING MEMORY Short term memory- limited capacity; most info that enters is forgotten Info can enter short term memory from either sensory memory or long term memory Not all info is directly from long term memory o Its first moved into short term memory, then recalled from long term o Short term memory contains info were trying to encode info and when were trying to retrieve it Working memory- term used for short term memory that contains both new info and info retrieved from long term memory www.notesolution.com
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