PSYA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Glycogen, Bulimia Nervosa, Appeasement

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14 May 2011
Chapter 13
Motivation: A general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength and
persistence of an individuals behaviour
Regulatory Behaviour: A behaviour that tends to bring physiological conditions back to
normal, thus restoring the condition of homeostasis (eating, drinking, hunting, shivering,
building a fire, and putting on a warm coat)
Homeostasis: The process by which important physiological characteristics (such as
body temperature and blood pressure) are regulated so that they remain at the optimal
System Variable: (the characteristic to be regulated) The variable controlled by a
regulatory mechanism (eg. Temperature in a heating system)
Set point: the optimum value of the system variable in a regulatory mechanism. The set
point for human body temperature, recorded orally, is approximately 37degrees C
Detector: In regulatory process, a mechanism that signals when the system variable
deviates from its set point
Correctional Mechanism: In a regulatory process, the mechanism that is capable of
restoring the system variable to the set point
Negative Feedback: A process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to
diminish or terminate that action. Regulatory systems are characterized by negative
feedback loops
Drive reduction hypothesis: The hypothesis that a drive (resulting from physiological
need or deprivation) produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in
motivated behaviours. Reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcing
The physiological changes associated with, say, going without food for several hours,
produce an unpleasant state called hunger
Drive: A condition, often caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium,
that energizes an organisms behaviour
The drive reduction hypothesis of reinforcement has fallen into disfavour for two primary
reasons. The first is the drive is almost always impossible to measure. The second
problem, we find that many events we experience as reinforcing are also exciting, or
drive increasing
Optimum-level Hypothesis: The hypothesis that organisms will perform behaviour that
restores the level of arousal to an optimum level
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