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Chapter 13

Chapter 13

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Oren Amitay

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Chapter 13 Notes – Motivation And Emotion
x
Motivation
-General Term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, and
persistence of an individual’s behavior.
o
Motivation is proactive/forward looking, negatively can be refer as reactive
o
Like a reinforcement, motivated to perform a behavior to gain or to avoid an aversive
event (bad situation)
x
Biological needs
o
Basic survival needs potent motivators
Organism can detect something wrong thus activate Regulatory behaviors that
bring physiological conditions back to normal.
Homeostasis
-process of regulating important physiological characteristics to
their optimum level.
Regulatory behavior
a behavior that tends to bring psychological conditions
back to normal, thus restoring the condition of homeostasis
e.g. eating, drinking, putting on a warm coat
o
Regular system has 4 essential features
System Variable
-The variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism
x
e.g. temperature in a system
Set point
-The optimum value for a system variable
x
e.g. the set point for human body temperature is approximately 37oC
Detector
-A mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from its
set point
Correctional Mechanism
-mechanism that is capable of restoring the system
variable to the set point
A simple example of such a regulatory system is a room whose temperature is
regulated by a thermostatically controlled heater. The system variable is the air
temperature of the room, the detector for this variable is a thermostat. The
thermostat can be adjusted so that contacts of a switch will close when the
temperature falls below a preset value *the set point. Closing of the contacts
turns on the correctional mechanism: the coils of the heater
o
Negative Feedback
-Process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to
diminish or terminate that action. (ex. Heater turning off)
o
Drive reduction hypothesis
-Hypothesis that a drive (resulting from physiological need)
produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated
behaviors. (reinforcing) reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcing.
o
Drive
-A condition, often caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium
that energizes an organism’s behavior.
o
Not all drives are homeostasis (biological need), sex drive is motivating, butwe can
survive without it, but hunger for example, serves as a drive for biological needs.
o
Drive reduction hypothesis of reinforcement has fallen into disfavor for two primary
reasons
The first is the drive is almost always impossible to measure; there is no way to
measure drive as to confirm that it actually exists, thus the hypothesis cannot be
experimentally tested
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The second is that if we examine our own behavior, we find that many events
we experience as reinforcing are also exciting, or drive increasing
x
e.g. the reason a roller coaster ride is fun is certainly not because it
reduces drive
x
i.e. experiences we really want to repeat are those that increase, rather
than decrease our level of arousal
x
Physiology of Reinforcement
o
Electrical stimulation proves to reinforce just as much as natural reinforcement because
of the activation of the same system in the brain
o
Researchers discovered that reinforcement system consists of neurons that release
dopamine as their transmitter substances
x
Optimum-Level Theory
o
In an attempt to find a common explanation for both positive and negative
reinforcement, psychologists proposed the optimum-level hypothesis
o
Optimum-level hypothesis
-The hypothesis that organisms will perform behavior that
restores the level of arousal to an optimum level
o
When the arousal level is too high, less stimulation is reinforcing, when too low, more
stimulation is desired
o
Diversive exploration is a response to under stimulation (boredom) that increases the
diversity of stimuli the organism tries to come in contact with.
o
Specific exploration is a response to overstimulation (specific need, lack of food/water)
that leads to the needed item, thereby decreasing the organism’s drive level.
o
The same logical problem plagues the drive-reduction hypothesis also applies to the
optimum level hypothesis; i.e. we cannot measure an organism’s arousal, we cannot say
what the optimum level is
x
Perseverance
-The tendency to continue to perform a behavior even when it is not being
reinforced
o
Effects of Intermittent Reinforcement:
Succeeding after several failures causes the learner to resist the effects of
subsequent failure
Experiencing failure in our past facilitates persistence of later performance, but
only if failure is followed by experience of success.
Extinction-induced aggression is when a stimulus for aggressive behavior is
eliciting and thereby establishes the opportunity to aggress as a reinforcing
stimulus.
x
(ex. Quiet office worker pounds on candy machine when it fails to
dispense candy
Or groups within society who are not doing well blames others for their
misfortune, scapegoating)
o
Overjustification Hypothesis
-The superfluous application of extrinsic rewards to
intrinsically motivated behavior will undermine intrinsic motivation
Basically it’ll lose intrinsic motivation when offered extrinsic rewards
When rewards are offered to complete a challenge, they’re benefit the learner,
but without them they make the learner lose their potential motivation in the
first place
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Learned Helplessness
-A response to exposure to an inescapable aversive
stimulus, characterized by reduced ability to learn a solvable avoidance task,
thought to play a role in the development of some psychological disturbances.
Organisms with the history that their behavior is useless in determining it’s
consequences become less sensitive to the consequences of their behavior
(they don’t care)
x
Eating
o
What Starts a Meal?
Physiological Factors:
x
Body needs nourishment
x
Eating begins when we have an empty stomach
x
Cannon’s theory that our stomach rubs against each other to produce
“hunger pangs” aka “the rumble theory
x
Depletion of body’s store of nutrient is cause of hunger
x
Primary body fuels are glucose (simple sugar) and fatty acids
(compounds made of breakdowns of fat)
x
Short-term reservoir stores carbohydrates and long-term stores fats
x
Carbohydrate
a form of animal stach called glycogen
x
Glycogen
-An insoluble carbohydrate that can be synthesized from
glucose to converted to it; use to store nutrients
x
long-term reservoir is the adipose tissue (fat tissue)
x
Mayer proposed that hunger occurs when the level of glucose in the
blood falls below a set point, monitored by specialized sensory
neurons.(Glucostatic hypothesis)
x
Glucose-sensitive neurons in the brain are called glucostats
o
Cultural and Social Factors:
Regular pattern of eating is not solely dependent on biological need, habit plays
a role
Environmental stimuli such as the time shown by the clock can trigger hunger
o
What stops a Meal?
Physiological factors that stop a meal arise from immediate effect of a meal, and
those that are produced by long term consequences.
The stomach measures the content of the food
Rats food were removed from its stomach (using tubes) and the rats ate the
exact amount they lost
Intestines contain receptors that detect the presence of nutrients.
Investigator can stimulate these receptors by injecting nutrients in the veins,
rats won’t feel hungry anymore even though their stomachs are empty
Long-term signals for satiety are produced by the adipose tissue that stores fat
Normal animals had a gene mutation called OB (obese) strain that produced
protein called Leptin (makes you thinner)
Fat animals with obesity are unable to produce the right amount of Leptin
x
Obesity
-having a Body Mass Index of >30
o
BMI is calculated by a person’s weight divided by the square of his or her height (kg/m2)
o
Cause of death for obese people are strokes, diabetes and cancer
o
Suffer from social and physical complications
o
Received negative judgment from others making them have a bad life.
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Description
Chapter 13 Notes Motivation And Emoto in N Motivation-GeneralTerm for a groupof phenomenathat affect the nature , strength, and persistence of an inividuals behvior. o Motivation is proativeforward looking, negatiely can be referas reactive o Likeareinforcement, motivated toperform a beha vior to gain or to oid an aversive event (bad situation) N Biological needs o Basic survivaleeds potent motv iators Organism can dee tct somethingwrong thus activateRegulatory beha viors that bring physiologicalconditions backot normal. Homeostasis-processof regulating imp ortant physiological chacteristics to their optimum el vel. Regulatory behav ior a behavior that tendst bring psychool gical condi ns back to normal, thuse rstoringthe condition of homeostasis e.g. eating, drinki, putting on awarm coat o Regular system has4 essential featurs System Variable-The variable controlled by a regulatory mechan ism N e.g. temperature ina system Set point-The optimum value for a syste m variable o N e.g. the set pointfr human body temperatue r is approximatel 37 C Detector-A mechanism that signals whenthe systemvariable deviates fo rm its set point Correctional Mec hanism-mechanism that iscapable of restor ing the system variable to the setoint A simple exampleof such a regua l tory system is aroom whose temperature is regulated by a themr ostatically controlled hter. The sysm variable is the air temperature of the orom, the deteco t r for this varl is a thermostat.The thermostat can be adju sted so that contacts of a sth will close whenthe temperature falls beolw a preset value*the set point.Closing of theontacts turns on the correctional mechanism : the coils of theater o Negative Feedb ack-Process wherebythe effect prod uced by an actoi n serves to diminish or terminat that action.ex. Heater turni g off) o Drive reduction hypothesis-Hypothesis that adrive(resulting from physiologicalneed) produces an unpleasant state thatcausesanorgan ism to engage in motivated behaviors. (reif rcing)reductionof drive is asmed to be reinforcing. o Drive-A condition, often caused by physiological chages or homeostatic disequilibrium that energizes anorganisms behavior. o Not all drives areomeostasis (biol gical need), sexrive is motivating, t we can survive withoutit, but hungerf r example, seres as a drivef r biological needs. o Drive reduction ypothesis of reinf rcement has fall n into disfavor for two prrya reasons The first is the de is almost alwys impossible tomeasure;there is no wa y to measure drive asto confirm tha t it actually ets, thus the hypothsis cannot be experimentally et sted www.notesolution.com
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