Chapter 13 Notes – Motivation And Emotion
-General Term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, and
persistence of an individual’s behavior.
Motivation is proactive/forward looking, negatively can be refer as reactive
Like a reinforcement, motivated to perform a behavior to gain or to avoid an aversive
event (bad situation)
Basic survival needs potent motivators
Organism can detect something wrong thus activate Regulatory behaviors that
bring physiological conditions back to normal.
-process of regulating important physiological characteristics to
their optimum level.
–a behavior that tends to bring psychological conditions
back to normal, thus restoring the condition of homeostasis
e.g. eating, drinking, putting on a warm coat
Regular system has 4 essential features
-The variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism
e.g. temperature in a system
-The optimum value for a system variable
e.g. the set point for human body temperature is approximately 37oC
-A mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from its
-mechanism that is capable of restoring the system
variable to the set point
A simple example of such a regulatory system is a room whose temperature is
regulated by a thermostatically controlled heater. The system variable is the air
temperature of the room, the detector for this variable is a thermostat. The
thermostat can be adjusted so that contacts of a switch will close when the
temperature falls below a preset value *the set point. Closing of the contacts
turns on the correctional mechanism: the coils of the heater
-Process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to
diminish or terminate that action. (ex. Heater turning off)
Drive reduction hypothesis
-Hypothesis that a drive (resulting from physiological need)
produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated
behaviors. (reinforcing) reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcing.
-A condition, often caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium
that energizes an organism’s behavior.
Not all drives are homeostasis (biological need), sex drive is motivating, butwe can
survive without it, but hunger for example, serves as a drive for biological needs.
Drive reduction hypothesis of reinforcement has fallen into disfavor for two primary
The first is the drive is almost always impossible to measure; there is no way to
measure drive as to confirm that it actually exists, thus the hypothesis cannot be