Chapter 13 Notes – Motivation And Emotion
-General Term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, and
persistence of an individual’s behavior.
Motivation is proactive/forward looking, negatively can be refer as reactive
Like a reinforcement, motivated to perform a behavior to gain or to avoid an aversive
event (bad situation)
Basic survival needs potent motivators
Organism can detect something wrong thus activate Regulatory behaviors that
bring physiological conditions back to normal.
-process of regulating important physiological characteristics to
their optimum level.
–a behavior that tends to bring psychological conditions
back to normal, thus restoring the condition of homeostasis
e.g. eating, drinking, putting on a warm coat
Regular system has 4 essential features
-The variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism
e.g. temperature in a system
-The optimum value for a system variable
e.g. the set point for human body temperature is approximately 37oC
-A mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from its
-mechanism that is capable of restoring the system
variable to the set point
A simple example of such a regulatory system is a room whose temperature is
regulated by a thermostatically controlled heater. The system variable is the air
temperature of the room, the detector for this variable is a thermostat. The
thermostat can be adjusted so that contacts of a switch will close when the
temperature falls below a preset value *the set point. Closing of the contacts
turns on the correctional mechanism: the coils of the heater
-Process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to
diminish or terminate that action. (ex. Heater turning off)
Drive reduction hypothesis
-Hypothesis that a drive (resulting from physiological need)
produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated
behaviors. (reinforcing) reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcing.
-A condition, often caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium
that energizes an organism’s behavior.
Not all drives are homeostasis (biological need), sex drive is motivating, butwe can
survive without it, but hunger for example, serves as a drive for biological needs.
Drive reduction hypothesis of reinforcement has fallen into disfavor for two primary
The first is the drive is almost always impossible to measure; there is no way to
measure drive as to confirm that it actually exists, thus the hypothesis cannot be
The second is that if we examine our own behavior, we find that many events
we experience as reinforcing are also exciting, or drive increasing
e.g. the reason a roller coaster ride is fun is certainly not because it
i.e. experiences we really want to repeat are those that increase, rather
than decrease our level of arousal
Physiology of Reinforcement
Electrical stimulation proves to reinforce just as much as natural reinforcement because
of the activation of the same system in the brain
Researchers discovered that reinforcement system consists of neurons that release
dopamine as their transmitter substances
In an attempt to find a common explanation for both positive and negative
reinforcement, psychologists proposed the optimum-level hypothesis
-The hypothesis that organisms will perform behavior that
restores the level of arousal to an optimum level
When the arousal level is too high, less stimulation is reinforcing, when too low, more
stimulation is desired
Diversive exploration is a response to under stimulation (boredom) that increases the
diversity of stimuli the organism tries to come in contact with.
Specific exploration is a response to overstimulation (specific need, lack of food/water)
that leads to the needed item, thereby decreasing the organism’s drive level.
The same logical problem plagues the drive-reduction hypothesis also applies to the
optimum level hypothesis; i.e. we cannot measure an organism’s arousal, we cannot say
what the optimum level is
-The tendency to continue to perform a behavior even when it is not being
Effects of Intermittent Reinforcement:
Succeeding after several failures causes the learner to resist the effects of
Experiencing failure in our past facilitates persistence of later performance, but
only if failure is followed by experience of success.
Extinction-induced aggression is when a stimulus for aggressive behavior is
eliciting and thereby establishes the opportunity to aggress as a reinforcing
(ex. Quiet office worker pounds on candy machine when it fails to
Or groups within society who are not doing well blames others for their
-The superfluous application of extrinsic rewards to
intrinsically motivated behavior will undermine intrinsic motivation
Basically it’ll lose intrinsic motivation when offered extrinsic rewards
When rewards are offered to complete a challenge, they’re benefit the learner,
but without them they make the learner lose their potential motivation in the
-A response to exposure to an inescapable aversive
stimulus, characterized by reduced ability to learn a solvable avoidance task,
thought to play a role in the development of some psychological disturbances.
Organisms with the history that their behavior is useless in determining it’s
consequences become less sensitive to the consequences of their behavior
(they don’t care)
What Starts a Meal?
Body needs nourishment
Eating begins when we have an empty stomach
Cannon’s theory that our stomach rubs against each other to produce
“hunger pangs” aka “the rumble theory”
Depletion of body’s store of nutrient is cause of hunger
Primary body fuels are glucose (simple sugar) and fatty acids
(compounds made of breakdowns of fat)
Short-term reservoir stores carbohydrates and long-term stores fats
–a form of animal stach called glycogen
-An insoluble carbohydrate that can be synthesized from
glucose to converted to it; use to store nutrients
long-term reservoir is the adipose tissue (fat tissue)
Mayer proposed that hunger occurs when the level of glucose in the
blood falls below a set point, monitored by specialized sensory
Glucose-sensitive neurons in the brain are called glucostats
Cultural and Social Factors:
Regular pattern of eating is not solely dependent on biological need, habit plays
Environmental stimuli such as the time shown by the clock can trigger hunger
What stops a Meal?
Physiological factors that stop a meal arise from immediate effect of a meal, and
those that are produced by long term consequences.
The stomach measures the content of the food
Rats food were removed from its stomach (using tubes) and the rats ate the
exact amount they lost
Intestines contain receptors that detect the presence of nutrients.
Investigator can stimulate these receptors by injecting nutrients in the veins,
rats won’t feel hungry anymore even though their stomachs are empty
Long-term signals for satiety are produced by the adipose tissue that stores fat
Normal animals had a gene mutation called OB (obese) strain that produced
protein called Leptin (makes you thinner)
Fat animals with obesity are unable to produce the right amount of Leptin
-having a Body Mass Index of >30
BMI is calculated by a person’s weight divided by the square of his or her height (kg/m2)
Cause of death for obese people are strokes, diabetes and cancer
Suffer from social and physical complications
Received negative judgment from others making them have a bad life.
N biological needs: basic survival needs potent motivators. S organism can detect something wrong thus activate regulatory behaviors that bring physiological conditions back to normal. S homeostasis - process of regulating important physiological characteristics to their optimum level. S regulatory behavior a behavior that tends to bring psychological conditions back to normal, thus restoring the condition of homeostasis e. g. eating, drinking, putting on a warm coat. S: regular system has 4 essential features. S system variable - the variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism. S set point - the optimum value for a system variable. N e. g. the set point for human body temperature is approximately 37oc. S detector - a mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from its set point. S correctional mechanism - mechanism that is capable of restoring the system variable to the set point.