PSYA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Dysfunctional Family, Operant Conditioning, Iproniazid

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
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of 12
PSYA02 Chapter 15 Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Treatment: Getting Help to Those Who Need It
- Almost one in five people suffer from some type of mental disorder
- Impairment is widespread, affecting family life, the ability to work, maintenance of friendships &
more
o Ex. Schizophrenia/serve depression: Unable to hold down a job/get organized enough to
collect a welfare check
- People with many disorders top getting along with family/people who try to help
Why People Can’t or Will Not Seek Treatment
- 3 major problems why people fail to receive treatment
o 1. People may not realize that their disorder needs to be treated.
It is often taken as seriously as physical illness (origin of mental illness is
hidden). The belief that it can be cured because of “mind over matter.”Some
people believe that mental illness is a sign of personal weakness or that people
suffering from mental illness are not trying hard enough to help themselves.
o 2. There may be barriers to treatment, such as beliefs and circumstances that keep
people from getting help.
Family members discourage loved ones from getting help because it can be seen
as an embarrassment to the family. Financials obstacles to getting treatment
(lack of medical insurance). Barriers may arise (long waiting lists, lack of staff
education about most up-to-date education.
o 3. Even people who acknowledge they have a problem may not know where to look for
services.
Finding the right psychologist is harder than simply flipping though the yellow
pages.
Approaches to Treatment
- 2 types of treatment
o 1. Psychotherapy : Person interacts with a psychotherapist; focuses on the mind
o 2. Medical/Biological Treatments: Treated with drugs or surgery; focuses on brain and
body
Both Treatments may be used; For flying: virtual reality therapy and anxiety
medication may be used
Psychological Therapies: Healing the Mind through Interaction
- Psychological therapy/psychotherapy: an interaction between a therapist and someone
suffering from a psychological problem, with the goal of providing support or relief from the
problem
- Eclectic Therapy: A form of psychotherapy that involves drawing on techniques from different
forms of therapy, depending on the client and the problem.
Psychodynamic Therapy
- Psychodynamic psychotherapies: Explore childhood events and encourage individuals to use this
understanding to develop insight into their psychological problems
- There are numbers of different therapies but they all share the belief that the path to
overcoming psychological problems is to develop insight into the unconscious memories,
impulses, wishes and conflicts that are assumed to underlie these problems
Psychoanalysis
- Assumes that humans are born with aggressive and sexual urges that are repressed during
childhood development through defence mechanisms
- Encouraged to bring repressed conflicts into consciousness so that the client can understand
them and reduce unwanted influences
- Focuses mostly on early childhood events as it is believed urges and conflicts were likely to be
repressed during that time
- Takes place over an average of 3 6 years, four or five sessions a week
- Asked to sit on a couch, lying down and asked to express what’s on their mind
How to Develop Insight
- Goal of Psychoanalysis: For the client to understand the unconscious in a process Freud called
“developing insight
- Several key techniques to help client develop insight
o 1. Free Association
Client is asked to report everything that enters the mind, without censorship or
filtering. Therapist may look for themes that recur during therapy sessions
o 2. Dream Analysis
Dreams are treated as metaphors that symbolize unconscious conflict or wishes
that contain disguised clues that the therapist can help the client understand
o 3. Interpretation
Therapist deciphers the meaning underlying what the client says and does.
Analyst suggests possible meanings to the client, looking for signs that the
correct meaning has been discovered. Analyst could over interpret the client’s
thoughts and emotions and sometimes even contribute interpretations that are
far from the truth.
o 4. Analysis of Resistance
Resistance: A reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting
unpleasant unconscious material.
The Process of Transference
- Client and psychoanalyst often develop a close relationship
o Clients would develop an unusually strong attachment, almost as though they were
viewing (him) as a parent or a lover, and (he) worried that this could interfere with
achieving the goal of insight
- Transference: Occurs when the analyst begins to assume a major significant in the client’s life
and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies
- The ultimate goal of psychoanalysis, may be enhanced by interpretations of the client’s
interaction with the therapist also possibly having implications for the client’s past and future
relationships
Beyond Psychoanalysis
- Modern psychodynamic theory reflects contributions of many who followed, including his
students
- Carl Jung and Alfred Adler agreed with Freud that insight was a key therapeutic goal but
disagreed that insight usually involves unconscious conflicts about sex and aggression
- Jung emphasized collective unconscious, culturally determined symbols and myths that are
shared among all people that, he argued, could serve as a basis for interpretation beyond sex or
aggression
- Adler believed that emotional conflicts are the result of perceptions of inferiority and that
psychotherapy should help people overcome problems resulting from inferior social status, sex
roles and discrimination
- Melanie Klein; believed primitive fantasises of loss and persecution were important factors
underlying mental illness
- Karen Horney; disagreed with Freud about inherent differences in the psychology of men and
women and traced such differences in the psychology of men and women and traced such
differences to society and culture rather than biology
- These social themes have been developed most explicitly in interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT)
- Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT): a form of psychotherapy that focuses on helping clients
improve current relationships
- Therapists using IPT focus on the person’s interpersonal behaviours and feelings. Particular
attention to grief, role disputes, role transitions, or interpersonal deficits
- IPT Therapies
o Client sits face to face, therapy is less intensive; meetings occur once a week and lasts
months

Document Summary

Psya02 chapter 15 treatment of psychological disorders. Treatment: getting help to those who need it. Almost one in five people suffer from some type of mental disorder. Impairment is widespread, affecting family life, the ability to work, maintenance of friendships & more: ex. Schizophrenia/serve depression: unable to hold down a job/get organized enough to collect a welfare check. People with many disorders top getting along with family/people who try to help. Why people can"t or will not seek treatment. 3 major problems why people fail to receive treatment: 1. People may not realize that their disorder needs to be treated. It is often taken as seriously as physical illness (origin of mental illness is hidden). There may be barriers to treatment, such as beliefs and circumstances that keep people from getting help. Family members discourage loved ones from getting help because it can be seen as an embarrassment to the family. Financials obstacles to getting treatment (lack of medical insurance).