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Chapter Chapter 12

PSYA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter Chapter 12 : Hexaco Model Of Personality Structure, Nomothetic, Trait Theory

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Donald Kyle Danielson
Chapter 12

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Chapter 12: Personality
What is personality?
Characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving that is unique to each individual, end
remains relatively consistent over time and situations.
What are the two approaches to personality measurement?
The idiographic approach and the nomothetic approach.
What is the idiographic approach?
Ceatig detailed desiptios of speifi peso’s uiue pesoalit haateistis.
What is the nomothetic approach?
Examining personality in large groups of people, with the aim of making generalizations about
personality structure.
What is a personality trait?
A speifi pshologial haateisti that akes up pat of a peso’s pesoalit.
What is the Barnum effect?
Creating positive and generalized results that make people believe is their personality.
What is factor analysis?
It is used to group items that people respond to similarity. For example, the terms friendly
warm and kind have similar meanings and can be grouped into a cluster, referred to as a factor.
What is the five-factor model?
A trait-based theory of personality based on finding that personality can be described using five
major dimensions
Openness- imaginative versus down-to-earth
Conscientiousness- reliable versus unreliable
Extraversion- social versus reserved
Agreeableness- good-natured versus rude
Neuroticism- insecure versus secure
Desie the thee ipotat lies of eseah that elate hua eil ad pesoalit.
HEXACO Model of Personality: a six-factor theory that generally replicates the
five factors of the FFM and add one additional factor: Honesty-Humility
The Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism- describe a
person who is socially destructive, aggressive, dishonest, and likely to commit
harm in general.
Right-Wing Authoritarianism: a problematic set of personality characteristics
that also predisposes people to certain types of violent or antisocial tendencies.
RWA involves three key tendencies:
o Obeying orders and deferring to the established authorities in a society;
o Supporting aggression against those who dissent or differ from the
established social order;
o Believing strongly in maintaining the existing social order
What are temperaments?
It is an ifat’s haateisti atiit leel, ood, attention span, and distractibility. It is
predictive of their adult personalities.
What are the three temperaments that were identified?
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Well-adjusted: capable of self-control, confident, not overly upset by new people or
Under-controlled: impulsive, restless, distractible, emotionally volatile
Inhibited: socially uncomfortable, fearful, easily upset by strangers
What happens to personality over the lifespan?
Personality traits that lead to behaviors that receive positive reinforcement are more likely to
become stable characteristics of that individual. Generally, most traits become more positive
through adulthood. However, personality can change in the late adolescence and early
What is a state?
It is a temporary physical or psychological engagement that influences behavior.
What is the difference between states and traits?
Taits desie a peso’s geeal pesoalit tedeies, heeas states desie hat that
peso’s life i speifi set of iustaes.
What are the four general aspects of situations that are most likely to influence our behavior?
Locations e.g., being at work, school, or home
Associations- e.g., being with friends, alone, or with family
Activities- e.g., awake, rushed, studying
Subjective states- e.g., mad, sick, drunk, happy
What is the behaviorist perspective?
Behaviors personality theorists believe that the same principle of operant conditioning- where
animals produce behaviors that are reinforced- applies to human personality.
1. A human produces a behavior (ex. smiling at a peer)
2. The behavior is reinforced (ex. the peer becomes friendly)
3. The behavior is repeated (ex. the person smiles more often)
What is the social cognitive perspective?
According to this belief, personality is how a person deals with situations encountered in daily
life based on how we construct that situation in your mind and how we respond to those
What is reciprocal determinism?
Interactions between behavior, internal (personal) factors and external (situational) factors, all
of which mutually influence each other.
What is WEIRD?
Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic- (Canada, America, Western
Europeans). It refers to a single specific group on which major perspectives and theories of
personality are based.
Is the Big Five universal?
Yes, it is. Despite the many differences that may exist between cultures the people in those
cultures do appear to share the same basic personality structures.
What is a limitation of the Big Five in different cultures?
Because the FFM by performing a factor analysis of the personality adjectives in the English
language, the kinds of questions that are asked on Big Five questionnaires are designed to
measure the Big Five factors, and no others. It brings to question what if other languages used
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