He defined the g factor as comprising three “qualitative principles of cognition”:
apprehension or experience, education of relations, and education of correlates.
-A common task of intellectual abilities—solving analogies—requires all three principles.
Consider this analogy: LAWYER is to CLIENT as DOCTOR is to ________.
oApprehension of experience: refers to people’s ability to perceive and understanding
what they experience; thus, reading and understanding each of the words in the
analogy requires apprehension of experience.
oEducation of relations: in this context, it refers to the ability to perceive the relation
between LAWYER and CLIENT; namely, that the lawyer works for the client.
oEducation of correlates: it refers to the ability to apply a rule inferred from one case
to a similar case. Thus, the person whom a doctor works for is obviously a PATIENT.
Because analogy problems require all three of Spearman’s principles of cognition, he
advocated their use in intelligence testing.
-Correlations among various tests of particular intellectual abilities have provided empirical evidence
for Spearman’s two-factor theory.
-Spearman concluded that a general factor (g) accounted for the moderate correlations among different
tests of ability.
-Thus, a person’s score on a particular test depends on two things:
1.The person’s specific ability (s) on the particular test (such as spatial reasoning), and
2.His or her level of the g factor, or general reasoning ability.
Evidence from Factor Analysis
-Factor Analysis: a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests.
It permits researchers to identify underlying commonalities among groups of tests.
oIn the case of intelligence tests, these common factors would be particular abilities
that affect people’s performance on more than one test.
It provides clues about the nature of intelligence, but it cannot provide a theory of
The names given to the factors are up to the investigator and therefore include a degree of
oTo identify the relevant factors in human intelligence, one must include an extensive
variety of tests in the factor analysis, and be assured there are many.
A factor analysis can be informative only about tests to which it is applied.
oIt will never reveal other important abilities that are not measured by the tests it is
used to investigate.
-Birren and Morrison (1961) administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Table 11.1 on page 329.
A factor analysis that revealed three factors, labelled A, B, and C.
Factor loadings are the numbers in the three columns.
oThey are like correlation coefficients in that they express the degree to which a
particular test is related to a particular factor.
Factor A: verbal ability or general intelligence;
Factor B: maintaining information in short-term memory and manipulating numbers;
Factor C: spatial ability.
WAIS is a useful predictor of scholastic performance (and to a lesser extent) of vocational