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Chapter 10

Chapter 10.pdf


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili
Chapter
10

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Chapter 10: Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control
Prompts: used to increase likelihood that a person will engage in the correct behaviour at the
correct time (verbal prompt, gesture prompt, modeling prompt, physical prompt)
o Used during discrimination training to help person engage in correct behaviour in presence
of discriminative stimulus (S^d)
o Function of prompt: produce instance of correct behaviour so that it can be reinforced
o Makes teaching/training more efficient
o Use different prompts on different individuals instructions, gestures, modeling, physical
assistance, to get correct response in the presence of S^d (ball thrown by pitcher)
Fading: one way to transfer stimulus control from prompts to S^d
o Remove prompts so behaviour is under stimulus control of the S^d
Goal of prompting and fading is to engage in correct behaviour without prompts
Ultimately, S^d MUST have stimulus control over behaviour
Prompting gets correct behaviour to offer, fading transfers stimulus control to natural S^d
Types of Prompts:
1. Response Prompts: the behaviour of another person evokes correct response
Verbal Prompts
Gestural Prompts
Modeling Prompts
Physical Prompts
2. Stimulus Prompts: change in some aspect of the S^d or S-delta or the addition or
removal of another stimulus makes a correct response more likely
Within-stimulus prompts
Extrastimulus prompts
Transfer of Stimulus Control: transfer stimulus control to natural S^d so prompts no longer used
o Prompt fading: The response prompt is eliminated gradually
Fading within prompt
Fading across prompts
- Least-to-most prompting (provides least intrusive prompt first and uses
more intrusive prompts only as necessary to get correct behaviour to occur
Used when trainer believes learner may not need physical prompt
to engage in the correct behaviour and wants to provide
opportunity for learner to perform the task with the least assistance
Start with verbal, gestural, model, physical
- Most-to-least prompting (provides most intrusive prompt first and then
fade to less intrusive prompts)
Used when trainer believes learner will need a physical prompt to
engage in correct behaviour
Start with physical + verbal, physical, verbal + gestural, only verbal
o Prompt delay: After the S^d is presented, the prompt is delayed to provide the
opportunity for an unprompted response to occur (time b/t may be constant or
progressive)
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