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CA (168,408)
UTSC (19,325)
Psychology (10,054)
PSYA02H3 (984)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Textbook

17 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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CHAPTER 11: INTELLIGENCE AND THINKING
Most psychologists would define intelligence as a persons ability to learn
and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to
apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive way.
Recently, psychologists have pointed out that any definition of intelligence
depends on cultural judgements.
The study of intelligence is dominated by 3 main approaches:
1.The differential approach an approach to the study of intelligence
that involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individual
differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve problems,
particularly those that use skills important in the classroom.
2.The developmental approach an approach to the study of
intelligence based on the way children learn to perceive, manipulate, and
think about the world.
3.The information processing approach an approach to the study of
intelligence that focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to
solve problems.
Theories of Intelligence
People vary in many ways, such as in their abilities to learn and use words, to
solve arithmetic problems, and to perceive and remember spatial information.
Is intelligence a global trait or is it a composite of separate,
independent abilities?
Psychologists have devised intelligence tests that yield a single number,
usually called an IQ score. But the fact that these tests provide a single score
does not itself mean that intelligence is a single, general characteristic.
www.notesolution.com
Some researchers promote the idea that some intellectual abilities are
completely independent of one another. Ex: a person can be excellent at spatial
reasoning but poor at solving verbal analogies.
Even those who believe that intelligence is a global trait acknowledge that
people also have specific intellectual abilities and that these abilities are at
somewhat independent.
3 theories of intelligence: a two-factor theory, an information
processing theory, and a neuropsychological theory.
Spearmans Two-Factor Theory:
Charles Spearman (1927) proposed that a persons performance on a test of
intellectual ability is determined by 2 factors: the g factor, which is a general
factor, and the s factor, which is a factor specific to a particular test.
G factor according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to
all intellectual tasks, includes apprehension of experience, education of
relations, and eduction of correlates.
S factor according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a
particular task.
Eduction is the process of drawing or bringing out that is, of figuring out
from given facts.
Eduction of correlates refers to the ability to apply a rule inferred from
one case to a similar case.
The correlations among various tests of intellectual ability usually range
from .30 to .70.
Spearman concluded that a general factor (g) accounted for the moderate
correlations among different tests of ability. Thus, a persons score on a
particular test depends on 2 things: the persons specific ability (s) on the
particular test (such as spatial reasoning) and his or her level of the g factor, or
www.notesolution.com
general reasoning ability.
Evidence from Factor Analysis:
With Karl Pearson, Spearman developed a statistical procedure known as
factor analysis.
Factor analysis a statistical procedure that identifies common factors
among groups of tests.
This procedure permits researchers to identify underlying commonalities
among group o tests.
Factor loadings somewhat like correlation coefficients in that they
express the degree to which a particular test is related to a particular factor.
Factor analysis provides clues about the nature of intelligence, but it cannot
provide a theory of intelligence.
Factor analysis can never be more meaningful than the individual tests on
which it is performed. To identify the relevant factors in human intelligence, one
must include an intensive variety of tests in the factor analysis, and be assured
there are many.
Louis Thurstone (1938) administered a battery of 56 tests to 218 college
students and then performed a factor analysis. He extracted seven factors,
which he labelled verbal visualization, memory, reasoning, and perceptual speed.
If Thurstones 7 factors themselves had a second-order factor in common, this
factor might be conceived of as general intelligence.
Cattell performed just such a second-order factor analysis and found not one
but 2 major factors. Horn and Cattell (1966) called these factors fluid
intelligence (gf) and crystallized intelligence (gc).
Fluid intelligence is defined by relatively culture-free tasks, such as those
that measure the ability to see relations among objects or the ability to see
patterns in a repeating series of items.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
CHAPTER 11: INTELLIGENCE AND THINKING Most psychologists would define intelligence as a persons ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive way. Recently, psychologists have pointed out that any definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgements. The study of intelligence is dominated by 3 main approaches: 1. The differential approach an approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve problems, particularly those that use skills important in the classroom. 2. The developmental approach an approach to the study of intelligence based on the way children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world. 3. The information processing approach an approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve problems. Theories of Intelligence People vary in many ways, such as in their abilities to learn and use words, to solve arithmetic problems, and to perceive and remember spatial information. Is intelligence a global trait or is it a composite of separate, independent abilities? Psychologists have devised intelligence tests that yield a single number, usually called an IQ score. But the fact that these tests provide a single score does not itself mean that intelligence is a single, general characteristic. www.notesolution.com Some researchers promote the idea that some intellectual abilities are completely independent of one another. Ex: a person can be excellent at spatial reasoning but poor at solving verbal analogies. Even those who believe that intelligence is a global trait acknowledge that people also have specific intellectual abilities and that these abilities are at somewhat independent. 3 theories of intelligence: a two-factor theory, an information processing theory, and a neuropsychological theory. Spearmans Two-Factor Theory: Charles Spearman (1927) proposed that a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by 2 factors: the g factor, which is a general factor, and the s factor, which is a factor specific to a particular test. G factor according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks, includes apprehension of experience, education of relations, and eduction of correlates. S factor according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task. Eduction is the process of drawing or bringing out that is, of figuring out from given facts. Eduction of correlates refers to the ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar case. The correlations among various tests of intellectual ability usually range from .30 to .70. Spearman concluded that a general factor (g) accounted for the moderate correlations among different tests of ability. Thus, a persons score on a particular test depends on 2 things: the persons specific ability (s) on the particular test (such as spatial reasoning) and his or her level of the g factor, or www.notesolution.com
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