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Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Study Guide

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 17 The Nature and Causes of Psychology Disorders
Chapter Outline
Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders
-abnormal behaviour is behaviour that departs from the norm
-DSM-IV-TR is a classification system of psychological disorder
-overlook environmental and cognitive causes of abnormal behaviour
Anxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative Psychological Disorders
-psychological disorders involve unrealistic and excessive anxiety, fear, and guilt
-examples include intense fear of specific objects, intrusive thoughts, urges to engage in ritual-
like behaviour, physical problem with no organic basis, disruption in consciousness that affects
identity
-culture-bound syndromes are psychological disorders that are present in only one or a few
cultures
Personality Disorders
-traits that impair normal functioning
-anti-social personality is the most serious personality disorders
-people who have this disorder are dishonest, irresponsible, and incapable of feeling empathy
Substance-Related Disorders
-psychoactive substance use disorders include drug abuse and drug addiction
-heredity and brain chemistry play a role
Schizophrenic Disorders
-symptoms include disorganized thought, disturbances of affect, distorted perception, and
disturbance of motor activity
-there are 4 types of schizophrenia
-signs of the disorder appear in childhood
Mood Disorders
-extreme depression/ swings between depression and extreme happiness and high energy levels
-causes include faculty cognition, heredity, brain biochemistry, and sleep/wake cycles
-etiology is causation
-genotype, brain chemistry, and childhood environment are causes of psychological disorders
-less severe disorders are more heavily influenced by environmental factors, such as stressors,
unhealthy family interactions, and the person’s perception of these factors
-more severe psychological disorders are more heavily influenced by hereditary and biological
factors
Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders
-Kraepelin developed the classification system of psychological disorders
www.notesolution.com
What isAbnormal”?
-psychological disorders are characterized by abnormal behaviour, thoughts, and feelings
-abnormal is departure from norm
-psychological disorder is maladaptive, not abnormal behaviour
-psychological disorders cause distress and interfere with ability to lead satisfaction
-have delusions and hallucinations, thought disorder
-experience inappropriate emotions
Perspectives on the Causes of Psychological Disorders
-psychological disorders are caused by interaction of hereditary, cognitive, and environmental
factors
-cognitive factors include origins of distorted perceptions and maladaptive thought patterns
-environmental factors include family history, social interaction, diet, exposure to drug/ alcohol,
and childhood disease
The Psychodynamic Perspective
-based on Freud’s early work
-psychological disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by 3 components of mind:
id, ego, and superego
-conflicts arise to control harmful expressions of sexual or aggressive impulses and from
attempts to cope with dangers and traumatic experiences
-mind’s defence mechanism cannot produce resolution that is adequate for mental health
-defence mechanism distorts reality and individual functions in manner characteristic of an
earlier developmental stage
-symptoms include extreme anxiety, obsessive thoughts, and compulsive behaviour
-depression, distorted perceptions, and patterns of thinking
-paralysis and blindness
The Medical perspective
-based on Greek physician Hippocrates
-the idea of excessive four humours (black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm) led to emotional
problems
-biological factors contribute the least to the development of some psychological disorders,
including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
The Cognitive-Behavioural perspective
-psychological disorders are learned maladaptive behaviour patterns that are influence by
environmental factors and a person’s perception
-does not arise spontaneously in a person
-it is caused by the person’s interaction with this environment
-patients are encouraged to substitute maladaptive thoughts and behaviours with more adaptive
ones
www.notesolution.com
The Humanistic Perspective
-proper personality development occurs in unconditional positive regard
-disorders arise when people perceive they must ear positive regard of others
-become overly sensitive to demand and criticism of others
-define personal value primarily in terms of others’ reaction
-lack confidence in abilities and have instable internal value
-feel they have no control over the outcomes, followed by depression
-therapy includes making people have intrinsic value and help them achieve unique, positive
potential
The Sociocultural Perspective
-culture affects development of psychological disorders
-treatment requires understanding of cultural issues
-culture-bound syndromes are psychological disorders that appear in only certain cultures
The Biopsychosocial Perspective
-diathesis-stress model says the combination of genes and early learning experiences may
produce predisposition (diatheses) of disorders
-symptoms of disorder emerge only if the person is confronted with stressors that exceed his
coping abilities
-a person may be predisposed towards a disorder yet not develop it because he has not
encountered sufficient stressors to trigger its development or he possesses cognitive-behavioural
coping skills
-diathesis-stress model represents biopsychosocial perspective
-combines multiple perspectives
-investigate the type of family environment that triggers the disorder
-social phobia is analyzed through biopsychosocial approach
The DSM-IV-TR Classification scheme
-diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders is a classification system of psychological
disorders
-psychiatry is medical speciality devoted to treatment of psychological disorders
-known as clinical psychology
-DSM-IV-TR provides set of diagnostic categories
-description of an individual’s psychological condition using 5 criteria, known as axes
-Axis I contains information about disorders that require clinical attention, disorders that may
develop in childhood
-Axis II contain personality disorders
-Axis III- physical disorders
-Axis IV- severity of stress, details sources of stress, indicates, severity and approximate duration
-Axis V- estimate extent to which a person’s quality of life has been diminished by disorder
-comorbid is appearance of disorders that occur together
-DSM-IV-TR offers a systematic means of evaluating personal and psychological information
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 17 The Nature and Causes of Psychology Disorders Chapter Outline Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders -abnormal behaviour is behaviour that departs from the norm -DSM-IV-TR is a classification system of psychological disorder -overlook environmental and cognitive causes of abnormal behaviour Anxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative Psychological Disorders -psychological disorders involve unrealistic and excessive anxiety, fear, and guilt -examples include intense fear of specific objects, intrusive thoughts, urges to engage in ritual- like behaviour, physical problem with no organic basis, disruption in consciousness that affects identity -culture-bound syndromes are psychological disorders that are present in only one or a few cultures Personality Disorders -traits that impair normal functioning -anti-social personality is the most serious personality disorders -people who have this disorder are dishonest, irresponsible, and incapable of feeling empathy Substance-Related Disorders -psychoactive substance use disorders include drug abuse and drug addiction -heredity and brain chemistry play a role Schizophrenic Disorders -symptoms include disorganized thought, disturbances of affect, distorted perception, and disturbance of motor activity -there are 4 types of schizophrenia -signs of the disorder appear in childhood Mood Disorders -extreme depression/ swings between depression and extreme happiness and high energy levels -causes include faculty cognition, heredity, brain biochemistry, and sleep/wake cycles -etiology is causation -genotype, brain chemistry, and childhood environment are causes of psychological disorders -less severe disorders are more heavily influenced by environmental factors, such as stressors, unhealthy family interactions, and the persons perception of these factors -more severe psychological disorders are more heavily influenced by hereditary and biological factors Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders -Kraepelin developed the classification system of psychological disorders www.notesolution.com What is Abnormal? -psychological disorders are characterized by abnormal behaviour, thoughts, and feelings -abnormal is departure from norm -psychological disorder is maladaptive, not abnormal behaviour -psychological disorders cause distress and interfere with ability to lead satisfaction -have delusions and hallucinations, thought disorder -experience inappropriate emotions Perspectives on the Causes of Psychological Disorders -psychological disorders are caused by interaction of hereditary, cognitive, and environmental factors -cognitive factors include origins of distorted perceptions and maladaptive thought patterns -environmental factors include family history, social interaction, diet, exposure to drug/ alcohol, and childhood disease The Psychodynamic Perspective -based on Freuds early work -psychological disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by 3 components of mind: id, ego, and superego -conflicts arise to control harmful expressions of sexual or aggressive impulses and from attempts to cope with dangers and traumatic experiences -minds defence mechanism cannot produce resolution that is adequate for mental health -defence mechanism distorts reality and individual functions in manner characteristic of an earlier developmental stage -symptoms include extreme anxiety, obsessive thoughts, and compulsive behaviour -depression, distorted perceptions, and patterns of thinking -paralysis and blindness The Medical perspective -based on Greek physician Hippocrates -the idea of excessive four humours (black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm) led to emotional problems -biological factors contribute the least to the development of some psychological disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder The Cognitive-Behavioural perspective -psychological disorders are learned maladaptive behaviour patterns that are influence by environmental factors and a persons perception -does not arise spontaneously in a person -it is caused by the persons interaction with this environment -patients are encouraged to substitute maladaptive thoughts and behaviours with more adaptive ones www.notesolution.com The Humanistic Perspective -proper personality development occurs in unconditional positive regard -disorders arise when people perceive they must ear positive regard of others -become overly sensitive to demand and criticism of others -define personal value primarily in terms of others reaction -lack confidence in abilities and have instable internal value -feel they have no control over the outcomes, followed by depression -therapy includes making people have intrinsic value and help them achieve unique, positive potential The Sociocultural Perspective -culture affects development of psychological disorders -treatment requires understanding of cultural issues -culture-bound syndromes are psychological disorders that appear in only certain cultures The Biopsychosocial Perspective -diathesis-stress model says the combination of genes and early learning experiences may produce predisposition (diatheses) of disorders -symptoms of disorder emerge only if the person is confronted with stressors that exceed his coping abilities -a person may be predisposed towards a disorder yet not develop it because he has not encountered sufficient stressors to trigger its development or he possesses cognitive-behavioural coping skills -diathesis-stress model represents biopsychosocial perspective -combines multiple perspectives -investigate the type of family environment that triggers the disorder -social phobia is analyzed through biopsychosocial approach The DSM-IV-TR Classification scheme -diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders is a classification system of psychological disorders -psychiatry is medical speciality devoted to treatment of psychological disorders -known as clinical psychology -DSM-IV-TR provides set of diagnostic categories -description of an individuals psychological condition using 5 criteria, known as axes -Axis I contains information about disorders that require clinical attention, disorders that may develop in childhood -Axis II contain personality disorders -Axis III- physical disorders -Axis IV- severity of stress, details sources of stress, indicates, severity and approximate duration -Axis V- estimate extent to which a persons quality of life has been diminished by disorder -comorbid is appearance of disorders that occur together -DSM-IV-TR offers a systematic means of evaluating personal and psychological information www.notesolution.com -alcohol dependence (Axis I) can be comorbid with major depressive disorder (Axis I), also anti- social personality disorder (Axis II) -problem and divorce are stressors (Axis IV) that contribute to depression (Axis I) Some Problems with DSM-IV-TR Classification -DSM-IV-TR is strongly influenced by psychiatrists -more consistent with medical perspective -diagnosis and treatment emphasizes biological factors -potential cognitive and environmental determinants are overlooked -another problem is its reliability and consistency of psychological testing across applications -false-positive outcome is when test results falsely indicate presence of disorder -natural bereavement may be mistaken for major depressive disorder -labelling someone can affect clinical judgments -problem of associating names of disorders with people rather than with their symptoms The Need for Classification -recognition of diagnostic category precedes development of successful treatment for the disorder -treatments were found only after disorders could be diagnosed Prevalence of Psychological Disorders -substance use disorders, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders were the most common types of psychological disorders Clinical versus Actuarial Diagnosis -clinical psychologists make diagnoses and predict peoples future behaviour -diagnose and prediction require collection of data and interpretation of data -clinical judgments are diagnoses based on an experts experience -source of information may be the same in clinical and actuarial method, but the processing of information is different -may be considered less formal than that used in actuarial judgments -actuarial judgments use statistical rules that relate particular indicators (symptoms, test scores) to particular outcomes -work well when applied to large groups of people and to prediction of average outcomes -studies have shown actuarial judgments to be superior -reliability is higher than that of clinical judgment -always produces the same judgment for a particular set of data -personal bias in clinical judgments Disorders Usually Diagnosed in Childhood Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder -symptoms of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder are inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity -impairments interfere with age-appropriate functioning socially, academically www.notesolution.com
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