Textbook Notes (378,537)
CA (167,156)
UTSC (19,214)
Psychology (9,984)
PSYA02H3 (980)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Textbook

21 Pages
87 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 21 pages of the document.
Chapter 17 The Nature and
Causes of Psychological
Disorders
etiology: causes or origins of diseases
Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders
What is Abnormal?
abnormal refers to any departure from the norm
oex/ Einstein = abnormal
BUT the term has taken on a negative connotation as if abnormal is bad
distinction between normal and abnormal behaviour = subjective
psychological disorder = whether ones behaviour is maladaptive
oif someone does something that is maladaptive, doesnt mean they have a
disorder
oall is very subjective
Perspectives on the Causes of Psychological Disorders
caused by a interaction of hereditary, cognitive, and environmental factors
some cases genetic component is SO strong, will have psychological disorder
regardless of environment
several perspectives each puts emphasis on these factors
The Psychodynamic Perspective
psychological disorders originate in intra-psychic conflict produced by the three
components of the mind: the id, ego, and superego
oconflicts between the id, ego, and superego that lead to psychological
disorders
www.notesolution.com
minds defense mechanism cannot produce a resolution that is adequate for all three
odefense mechanisms themselves begin distorting reality
extreme anxiety, obsessive thoughts, and compulsive behavior, depression, distorted
perceptions and patterns of thinking
The Medical Perspective
illness of the mind
Hippocrates = black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm emotional problems
asylums were established to confine those with psychological disorders
ocondition of them were POOR and may have worsened their condition
18th/19th century quality and compassion improved
psychological matters are based on specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous
system that they should be approached for treatment in the same way as physical
illnesses
The Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective
psychological disorders are learned maladaptive behaviour patterns that can be
best understood by focusing on environmental factors and a persons perception of
those factors
caused by the persons interaction with his/her environment
oNOT spontaneously within the person
ex/ persons excessive use of alcohol may be reinforced by the relief of tension it
provides
treatment??? replace the maladaptive thoughts with more adaptive ones
The Humanistic Perspective
psychological disorders arise when people perceive that they must EARN the positive
regard of others
oproper and natural personality development occurs when people experience
unconditional positive regard
www.notesolution.com
THUS, they become overly sensitive to the demands and criticisms of others
odefine their personal VALUE primarily in terms of others reactions to them
lack confidence in their abilities and feel as though they have no stable, internal
value as persons
DEPRESSION!!!!!
The Sociocultural Perspective
cultural variables influence the nature and extent to which people interpret their
own behaviours as normal/abnormal
culture bound syndromes psychological disorders that exist and occur in certain
cultures
The Biopsychosocial Perspective
diathesis-stress model: accounts for psychological disorders based on the idea that
psychological disorders develop when a person possesses a predisposition for a
disorder and faces stressors that exceed his/her abilities to cope with them
othe genes that are involved are not necessarily specific to particular disorders
but may constitute a more general predisposition
othe genes dont specifically CAUSE the psychological disorder
rather it places a predisposition on the person to attain one
may be predisposed to a psychological condition but not have
encountered the stressors thatll trigger its development
biopsychosocial perspective: a view that the causes of psychological disorders can
best be understood in terms of the interaction of biological, psychological, and social
factors
The DSM-IV-TR Classification Scheme
Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders
omedical specialty devoted to the treatment of psychological disorders
oa widely used manual for classifying psychological disorders
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 17 The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders etiology: causes or origins of diseases Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders What is Abnormal? abnormal refers to any departure from the norm o ex/ Einstein = abnormal BUT the term has taken on a negative connotation as if abnormal is bad distinction between normal and abnormal behaviousru=jective psychological disorder = whether ones behaviomuraadaptive o if someone does something that is maladaptive, doesnt mean they have a disorder o all is very subjective Perspectives on the Causes of Psychological Disorders caused by a interactionofereditary, cognitive, and environmental factors some cases genetic component is SO strong, will have psychological disorder regardless of environment several perspectives each puts emphasis on these factors The Psychodynamic Perspective psychological disorders originate in intra-psychic conflict produced by the three components of the mind: the id, ego, and superego o conflicts between the id, ego, and superego that lead to psychological disorders www.notesolution.com minds defense mechanism cannot produce a resolution that is adequate for all three o defense mechanisms themselves begin distorting reality extreme anxiety, obsessive thoughts, and compulsive behavior, depression, distorted perceptions and patterns of thinking The Medical Perspective illness of the mind Hippocrates = black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phl egemmotional problems asylums were established to confine those with psychological disorders o condition of them were POOR and may have worsened their condition 18 /19 century quality and compassion improved psychological matters are based on specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system that they should be approached for treatment in the same way as physical illnesses The Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective psychological disorders ar learned maladaptive behaviour patterns that can be best understood by focusing on environmental factors and a persons perception of those factors caused by the persons interaction with his/her environment o NOT spontaneously within the person ex/ persons excessive use of alcohol may be reinforced by the relief of tension it provides treatment??? replace the maladaptive thoughts with more adaptive ones The Humanistic Perspective psychological disorders arise when people perceive that they must EARN the positive regard of others o proper and natural personality development occurs when people experience unconditional positive regard www.notesolution.com THUS, they become overly sensitive to the demands and criticisms of others o define their personal VALUE primarily in terms of others reactions to them lack confidence in their abilities and feel as though they have no stable, internal value as persons DEPRESSION!!!!! The Sociocultural Perspective cultural variables influence the nature and extent to which people interpret their own behaviours as normal/abnormal culture bound syndromes psychological disorders that exist and occur in certain cultures The Biopsychosocial Perspective diathesis-stress model: accounts for psychological disorders based on the idea that psychological disorders develop when a person possesses a predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors that exceed his/her abilities to cope with them o the genes that are involved are not necessarily specific to particular disorders but may constitute a more general predisposition o the genes dont specifically CAUSE the psychological disorder rather it places a predisposition on the person to attain one may be predisposed to a psychological condition but not have encountered the stressors thatll trigger its development biopsychosocial perspective: a view that the causes of psychological disorders can best be understood in terms of the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors The DSM-IV-TR Classification Scheme Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders o medical specialty devoted to the treatment of psychological disorders o a widely used manual for classifying psychological disorders www.notesolution.com the DSM-IV-TR describes psychological conditions using 5 different criteria, called axes AXIS 1 information on major psychological disorders that may develop during childhood o ex/ delirium, schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, sleep disorders, dementia, amnesia AXIS 2 personality disorders o long term maladaptive traits that impair normal functioning AXIS 3 physical disorders, such as skin rashes or high blood pressure, accompanying the psychological disorder AXIS 4 severity of the stress that the person has experiences o details the source of the stress and indiciates its severity AXIS 5 describes overall level of psychological, social, or occupational functioning o estimates the extent to which a persons quality of life has been diminished by the disorder comorbid: the appearance of two or more disorders in a single person example of a situation from Axis 1-5 o Axis 1 alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder o Axis 2 anti-social personality disorder o Axis 3 alcohol cirrhosis o Axis 4 severe stress (divorce, loss of job) o Axis 5 GAF evaluation = 30 --> very serious impairment of functioning Some Problems with DSM-V-TR Classification the system focuses strongly on psychological factors, thus making it biased towards psychological disorders accuracy is not 100%...never is with psychological disorders www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit