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Chapter 13

PSYB01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Frequency Distribution, Type I And Type Ii Errors, Statistical Hypothesis Testing


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB01H3
Professor
Anna Nagy
Chapter
13

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Chapter 13 Terminology
Alpha level: In a statistical analysis, the maximum probability that a result- having
been declared significant by exceeding this value-has actually come from the null
hypothesis sampling distribution. It is usually set at .05.
Analysis of variance: See F -Test
Conclusion validity: Extent to which the conclusions about about the relationships
among variables reached on the basis of the data are correct.
Degrees of freedom (df): A concept used in tests of statistical significance; the
number of observations that are free to vary to produce a known outcome.
Error variance: Random variability in a set of scores that is not the result of the
independent variable. Statistically, the variability of each score form its group mean.
F-test: A statistical significance test for determining whether two or more means are
significantly different; also known as analysis of variance (ANOVA). F is the ratio of
systematic variance to error variance.
Inferential statistics: Statistics designed to determine whether results based on
sample data are generalizable to a population.
Null hypothesis: The hypothesis, used for statistical purposes, that the variables
under investigation are not related in the population, that any observed effect based
on sample results is due to random error.
Power: The probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis.
Probability: The likelihood that a given event (among a specific set of events) will
occur.
Research hypothesis: The hypothesis that the variables under investigation are
related in the population-that the observed effect based on sample data is true in the
population.
Sampling distribution: A frequency distribution of the values of a statistic that
would be obtained if a researcher took an infinite number of samples of a particular
size, conducted the same study, and calculated the same statistic for each one. Used
in inferential statistics to evaluate the likelihood of a given result if only chance is
operating.
Statistically significant: Rejection of the null hypothesis when an outcome has a low
probability of occurrence (usually .05 or less) if, in fact, the null hypothesis is
correct.
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