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Chapter 13

# PSYB01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Frequency Distribution, Type I And Type Ii Errors, Statistical Hypothesis Testing

by OC59132

Department

PsychologyCourse Code

PSYB01H3Professor

Anna NagyChapter

13This

**preview**shows half of the first page. to view the full**2 pages of the document.**Chapter 13 Terminology

Alpha level: In a statistical analysis, the maximum probability that a result- having

been declared significant by exceeding this value-has actually come from the null

hypothesis sampling distribution. It is usually set at .05.

Analysis of variance: See F -Test

Conclusion validity: Extent to which the conclusions about about the relationships

among variables reached on the basis of the data are correct.

Degrees of freedom (df): A concept used in tests of statistical significance; the

number of observations that are free to vary to produce a known outcome.

Error variance: Random variability in a set of scores that is not the result of the

independent variable. Statistically, the variability of each score form its group mean.

F-test: A statistical significance test for determining whether two or more means are

significantly different; also known as analysis of variance (ANOVA). F is the ratio of

systematic variance to error variance.

Inferential statistics: Statistics designed to determine whether results based on

sample data are generalizable to a population.

Null hypothesis: The hypothesis, used for statistical purposes, that the variables

under investigation are not related in the population, that any observed effect based

on sample results is due to random error.

Power: The probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis.

Probability: The likelihood that a given event (among a specific set of events) will

occur.

Research hypothesis: The hypothesis that the variables under investigation are

related in the population-that the observed effect based on sample data is true in the

population.

Sampling distribution: A frequency distribution of the values of a statistic that

would be obtained if a researcher took an infinite number of samples of a particular

size, conducted the same study, and calculated the same statistic for each one. Used

in inferential statistics to evaluate the likelihood of a given result if only chance is

operating.

Statistically significant: Rejection of the null hypothesis when an outcome has a low

probability of occurrence (usually .05 or less) if, in fact, the null hypothesis is

correct.

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