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Chapter 2

PSYB01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Autonomic Nervous System, Theoretical Definition, Google Scholar

Course Code
David Nussbaum

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Lecture2 Chapter2
The foundation of psychological research
Relationship between independent variable and dependent variable internal state
Description (understanding)
Conceptual definition = provides the meaning of an abstract term.
Conceptual definition (provide meaning of abstract term)
Operational definition (from conceptual definition, how concept coded, measured, or
Explanation (establishes predictive relationship, not imply causality)
Causality requires three kinds of evidence (Cook & Campbell, 1979):
1. Temporal precedence (cause precedes effect)
2. Covariation 共变 of cause and effect (cause present, effect occur/ cause is absent,
effect not occur)
3. Alternative explanations (No confounding)
Logic of Experimentation (eliminate all other possible “causes”, subtraction)
Practical Knowledge
Basic and Applied Research
1. Basic research (Addresses questions about the nature of abstract natural processes
and ideas)
2. Applied research (Addresses questions that are thought to be of immediate relevance
in solving practical problems)
Sources of Research Ideas
Observation (Balance between focus and openness)
Serendipity effect open mind increase the chance of accidentally discovering something
fortunate (unplanned)
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James-Lange theory (physiological change experience of emotional change)
Autonomic nervous system
Regulates bodily reaction to stress
Cannon-Bard theory (emotion come first physiological change)
Emotional experience
Emotions come first, followed by bodily change
Embodiment theory of emotion (Bodily state and their associated emotion)
perceiving and thinking emotion involve re-experiencing in oneself those subtle physical
and mental change of relevant emotion
Autonomic nerve system
Part of peripheral nerve system
Regulate body reaction to stress
1. Primary sources (peer-reviewed publications, first hand empirical report)
a. Empirical articles (particular study, abstract, introduction, method, result and
discussion, certain format)
Particular study
Empirical generalization: statement describe found in data
Certain format divided into section with an abstract, introduction, method, result and
First-hand empirical report
b. Review articles (Evaluates the methodology used across different studies)
Studies of particular phenomenon, such as facial expressions of emotion
Evaluates the methodology used across different studies
2. Secondary sources(journalistic pieces scientist work, second hand media accounts
of scientific work, outlet text book, newspaper)
a. Popular science (Explain science general audience)
Explain science for a general audience (eminent scientist)
b. Science journalism (Focus on recent development newsworthy)
Focus on recent development in science that are judged newsworthy
c. Archival Research (Conduct empirical research on public records)
Conduct empirical research on public records
Searching the Literature
Not free, are proprietary
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