PSYB10H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Informed Consent, Dependent And Independent Variables, Internal Validity

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27 Jan 2013

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CH.2 Methodology How social psychologists do research
- Hindsight whereby people exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after
knowing that it occurred
- Social psych is an empirical science methods include observational method, corelational
method and the experimental method
- Science is a cumulative process, and researchers typically generate hypothesis from previous
- Theory an organized set of principles that can be used to explain observed phenomena
- Hypothesis a testable statement or idea about the relationship between two or more variables
- Theory is not the only way to deprive a new hypothesis in social psych researchers often
observe a phenomena in everyday life
- Case of Kitty Genovese - bystander effect or "Genovese syndrome” – Genovese was attacked
and brutely murdered, the attack lasted 45 minutes 38 people witnessed the attack and none
of them intervened or called the police
- The researchers predicted that the more people who witness an emergency, the less likely it is
that any given individual will intervene = diffusion of responsibility
- Observational method the technique whereby a researcher observes people and
systematically records measurements of their behaviour (e.g. wasit-pouch microphone)
- at one extreme, the observer neither participates nor intervenes in any way; instead the
observer is unobstructive and tires to blend in with the scenery as much as possible
- disadvantage people change their behaviour when they are being observed
- operational definition the precise specification of how variables are measured
- some situations require researchers to interact with the people being observed ethnography
- ethnography the method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by
observing it from the inside without imposing any preconceived notions they have
- the goal is to understand the richness and complexity of the group by observing it in action
- ethnography is the main method of cultural anthropology the study of human cultures and
- interjudge reliability - the level of agreement b/w two or more people who independently
observe and code a set of data; by showing that two or more judges independently come up
with the same observations, researchers ensure that the observation are not the subjective
impressions of one individual
- archival analysis a form of the observational method whereby the researcher examines the
accumulated documents (or achieves) of a culture (e.g. diaries, novels, magazines, and
- archival analysis is a powerful form of observational method because it allows a unique look at
the values and interests of a culture
- Correlational method the technique whereby researchers systemically measure two or more
variables and assess the relation between them (ie. How much one can be predicted from the
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