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Chapter 3

PSYB10H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Scientific Control, Cognitive Miser, Abnormal Psychology


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Chapter
3

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Social Psychology, 4Ce (Aronson/Wilson/Akert/Fehr)
Chapter 3 Social Cognition: How We Think about the Social World
Ch. 3-01 Chapter 3 began with a description of accident victim Kevin Chappell who suffered brain damage
leaving him with a severe visual disability. His disability is such that
A)he is blind due to damage to the optic nerve.
B)he can recognize environmental context but not the objects or people in the scene.
C)he can recognize faces but not things.
D)he can recognize objects, but cannot read.
E)he can recognize things but not faces.
Answer: C
Type: MC Page Ref: 57-58
Skill: Factual
Ch. 3-02 The lesson to be learned from Chapter 3's discussion of accident victim's Kevin Chappell's story is that
we can automatically categorize objects and faces
A)because of the mere exposure effect.
B)allowing processing capacity for other important things.
C)because we are particularly interested in faces and objects.
D)because of our strong desire to do so.
E)because of cognitive biases that influence our perception.
Answer: B
Type: MC Page Ref: 58-59
Skill: Conceptual
Ch. 3-03 ________ refers to the way people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make
judgments and decisions about themselves and others.
A)Counterfactual thinking
B)Social cognition
C)Automatic thinking
D)Schemas
E)Decision rules
Answer: B
Type: MC Page Ref: 58-59
Skill: Factual
Ch. 3-04 According to the authors, why do people often rely on a variety of mental shortcuts? We're
A) inherently flawed in our ability to reason.
B)more interested in speed than in accuracy when we reason.
C)motivated to enhance our self-esteem.
D)not interested in much of the information we take in.
E)confronted with an overwhelming amount of social information.
Answer: E
Type: MC Page Ref: 58-59
Skill: Factual
Ch. 3-05 ________ are the cognitive structures we use to organize our knowledge of the social world.
A)Social roles
B)Schemas
C)Heuristics
D)Social cognitions
E) Internal attributions
Answer: B
Type: MC Page Ref: 59-60
Skill: Factual
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Ch. 3-06 Mental structures that organize information in our social world are called
A)cognitive filters.
B)counterfactuals.
C)schemas.
D)affect blends.
E)heuristics.
Answer: C
Type: MC Page Ref: 59-60
Skill: Factual
Ch. 3-07 Which of the following can be considered to be good examples of schemas?
A)Stereotypes.
B)Conterfactuals.
C)Base rate information.
D)Heuristics.
E)Priming.
Answer: A
Type: MC Page Ref: 59-61
Skill: Factual
Ch. 3-08 Which of the following statements about schemas is true?
A)Schemas affect the information we notice, but only when we are aware of the schema.
B)Schemas affect what we perceive while emotional processes are important for determining what
we think about and remember.
C)Schemas affect what we notice but not necessarily what we remember.
D)Schemas affect the information we notice, think about and remember.
E)Schemas affect what we remember while intensity of stimuli determines what we notice.
Answer: D
Type: MC Page Ref: 59-61
Skill: Factual
Ch. 3-09 In the study by Kunda, Sinclair, and Griffin (1997), participants were told that a person was a
salesperson or an actor and very extroverted. Participants generated descriptions of the person that
A)varied according to the occupation of the person.
B)did not differ according to the occupation.
C)varied depending on the attractiveness of the person.
D)were better remembered when consistent with the occupation of the person.
E)were similar to the participants own personality.
Answer: A
Type: MC Page Ref: 60
Skill: Factual
Ch. 3-10 In most cases, when we encounter a fact that is inconsistent with our schemas, we
A)ponder the source of the inconsistency.
B)abandon our schemas.
C)examine the nature of the inconsistency.
D)overlook the inconsistent fact.
E) revise our schemas.
Answer: D
Type: MC Page Ref: 59-60
Skill: Factual
Ch. 3-11 When thinking about the film Casablanca, many people erroneously remember the Humphrey Bogart
line, "Play it again, Sam." In reality, Bogart never said that line. This example illustrates that memory is
A)objective.
B) reconstructive.
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C) random.
D) regularly false.
E) inconsistent with our schemas.
Answer: B
Type: MC Page Ref: 65
Skill: Applied
Ch. 3-12 When most people think of the character Captain Kirk from the original Star Trek series, they think of
the line, "Beam me up, Scotty!" Actually, that line of dialog never appeared on the show. This example
illustrates that memory is often
A)a product of our schemas.
B) influenced by our peers.
C)more accurate in thinking about real people than about fictitious characters.
D)completely random.
E) inconsistent with our schemas.
Answer: A
Type: MC Page Ref: 65
Skill: Applied
Ch. 3-13 Pierre encounters his physics professor working on her laptop computer in a coffee shop. The professor
has a stack of physics journals, along with a rap music CD on the table. If asked later to recall what he
had seen, Pierre would be most likely to remember ________ because ________.
A) the rap music CD.....it is consistent with his schema for a coffee shop
B) the computer and journals.....they are consistent with his schema for physics professors
C) the rap music CD.....it is consistent with his schema for physics professors
D) the rap music CD.....it is consistent with his schema of a student
E) the computer and journals.....they are inconsistent with his schema for physics professors
Answer: B
Type: MC Page Ref: 59-60
Skill: Applied
Ch. 3-14 Why do we use schemas?
A)Schemas are taught to us in our early childhood.
B)Schemas enable us to interpret the world accurately.
C)Without schemas, the world would seem inexplicable and confusing.
D)Humans are born with schemas.
E)Without schemas, we could not be accurate in our judgments.
Answer: C
Type: MC Page Ref: 59-64
Skill: Conceptual
Ch. 3-15 Korsakov's syndrome is a neurological disorder that makes sufferers unable to form new memories. The
world is disorienting and incoherent to patients with this disorder, so they often confabulate and invent
fictions to make the world less scary and confusing. A social psychologist might say that these patients
A)are not concerned with reducing ambiguity.
B) invent schemas where none exist.
C)are cursed with memory that is always reconstructive.
D)have lost their schemas.
E)cannot form schemas.
Answer: C
Type: MC Page Ref: 63
Skill: Conceptual
Ch. 3-16 Korsakov's syndrome is a neurological disorder more closely associated with abnormal psychology than
with social psychology. Why would the authors of your text describe the symptoms of Korsakov's
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