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Chapter 2

PSYB10H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Wendy Craig, Murder Of Kitty Genovese, Research On The Effects Of Violence In Mass Media


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Chapter
2

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Chapter 2: methodology
- does television violence produce violent behaviour? Virgine
Larviere proposed that violence on television plas a role in brutal ,
deadly assaults of innocent people
- Television violence: the effects on children of different ages
(Wendy Josephson) found that televison violence does not
increase aggression, at leats among children that are predisposed
towards aggression. . allthough the group at risk might be a
minority of viewers, they are likely to be the majority of
aggressors.
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AN EMPIRICAL SCIENCE
- hindsight bias: the tendency for people to exaggerate how much
they could have predicted the outcome after knowing that it had
occurred.
- When we study human behaviour the results seem predictable
- A study found that the tendency to think that “we knew it all
along” is already apparent among three year olds and elderly
vancouver residents
oROESE and OLSON (1996)they asked students at the
university of Western Ontario to read a story based on
world war I events, about a young British soldier who
devised a plan to save a small village that was about to be
invaded. (some people were told that the soldier was able to
save his community and many felt that that outcome was
predicable)
In another condition, particpants were told that the
soldiers plan was rejected and the village was
destroyed. And the participants said that they thought
it was obvious that the village would be destroyed
oSo the trick is to predict what will happen before you read
the story.
oThree types of sociological methods are: observational
method, correlational method and experimental method
Formulatig Hypotheses and Theories
- theory: an organized set of principles that can be used to explain
observed phenomena
- hypothesis: a testable statement or idea about the relationshp
between two or more variables.
- Social psychologists are continuosly engaging in a process of
theory refinement, they develop a theory , test specific
hypothesis, derived from that theory and based on the resullts
revise and formulate new hypotheses.
- KITTY GENOVESE: Genovese was attacked while walking to her
care and brtally murdered in an alley of an apartment complex.
The attack lasted 45 minutes . 38 of the apartment residents

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admitted later that they had rushed to their windows after hearing
her sceams but none of the bystanders helped her because they
assumed that someone else already called the police
- BIBB Lante and John Darley believe that the more people that
witness an emergency the less likely that any given individual will
intervene. The neighbours might have assumed that someone else
would have called the police in a phenomenon called diffusion of
responsibility.
- Perhaps they would have helped if they were the only ones who
were witneessing the murder.
- In science the researcher must collect data to test his or her
hypothesis. This requires the precise spefication on how the
variables that will be examined are measured and manipulated
known as operational definition.
THE OBSERVATIONAL METHOD
- observational method: the technique whereby a researcher
observes people and systematically records measurements of
behaviour
- ethnography: the method by which researchers attempt to
understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside
without imposing any preconceived notions
- the goal is to understand the richness and complexity of the group
by observing it in action.
oIn the 1950s people of the midwest US predicted that the
world would come to an end in violent catalysm on a specific
date. They also thought that they would be rescued by
someone in a spaceship that would land in the leaders
backyard.
oLeon Festinger and his collleages wanted to study how the
group would react when they found out that their beliefs
were false, so they blended in with the crowd , convincing
them that they believed the same thigns as well.
oThe clan members still believed that the spaceship would
come and rescue them, and they became more commited to
the belief system they renewed their efforts to convert
others.
-Debra Pepler and Wendy Craig have developed a thoery a unobstrusive
method for observing bullying behaviour in school settings
- children wear wrist pouches containing small microphones ,while
a hidden video camera films their interactions.
- the waist-pouch microphone technology also adresses the age old
problem in observational research- people change their behaviour when
they are being observed
-these methods encourage reasearchers to see naturally occuring
behaviours since ther will be more of a tendency for children to change

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their behaviorus if adults are around.
- reasearchers must define behaviours of interest, in this study
reasearchers were looking at three behaviours (bullying only occurs if
there is a power imbalance, if there is an intent to harm on th part of the
person doing the bullying, and if the victim shows distress)
- power imbalance: bigger chidren are at an advantage, and tend to be
more powerful than smaller children.
USING OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH TO DEVELOP ANTI-BULLYING
PROGRAMS
- children are taught how to respond when they are victims of
bullying and teachers are trained to be viligant when they see
bullying occur.
- Pepler and colleagues found that a deacrease in bullying and
increase in is most likely to be seen among children who who bully
moderately often
- Children who bully at a high rate don’t seem to be affected. The
affects of the program can be seen on a long term scale and not
right away.
- Interjudge reliability: the level of agreement between two or more
people who independently observe and code a set of data, by
showing that two or more judges independently come up with the
same observations, researchers ensure that the observations are
not the subjective impressions of the one individual
- Another form of observational method is archival analysis: where
the reasearcher examines accumulated documents, or archives of
a particular culture. (diaries, novels, suicide notes, popular music
lyrics, television shows, movies, magazine and newspaper articles,
and advertising, tell us about how society views itself)
- Helps us look at the values and interests of a culture
- Eric Patton and Gary Johns analyzed portrayals of women
absenteeism in the workplace by examining content of articles
posted in the New York times over the last 100 years.
oWomen were generally portrayed as missing work because
of familial and domestic obligations.
- researchers at york university examiend the relation between
body ideals, and the body sizes of average young women and
men. It turns out that the body sizes of playboy models, have
decreased over time to the point where 100 percent of those
women are underweight
- the average womens body is further from the cultural ideal than it
was 40 years ago
- Does the ideal of thinness in women contribute to body
dissatisfaction and destructive behaviours such as eating
disorders?
- In addition to using thin models, fashion industry also touches up
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