Chapter 4 theoretical and measurement issues in trait psychology. Trait psychologists interested in the ways in which people are different from each other. Sometimes called differential psychology (includes personality, abilities, aptitudes and intelligence) Quantitative approach - emphasizes how much a given individual differs from average. Every personality, no matter how complex or unusual, is the product of a particular combination of a few basic and primary traits. There is a degree of consistency in personality over time, but the way it manifests itself in actual behaviour might change substantially. If situations mainly control how people beave, then the existence or relevance of traits is questionable. Hartshorne and may (1928): low cross-situation consistency is in honesty, helpfulness, self- control. Mischel (1968): personality psychologists should abandon their efforts to explain behavior with traits, focusing instead on situations. Mis(cid:272)hel(cid:859)s (cid:894)1(cid:1013)6(cid:1012)(cid:895) (cid:272)(cid:396)iti(cid:395)ue e(cid:374)(cid:272)ou(cid:396)aged de(cid:271)ate i(cid:374) pe(cid:396)so(cid:374)alit(cid:455) ps(cid:455)(cid:272)holog(cid:455) a(cid:271)out the i(cid:373)po(cid:396)ta(cid:374)(cid:272)e of traits compared to situations in causing behavior.