Textbook Notes (290,000)
CA (170,000)
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Psychology (10,000)
PSYB30H3 (500)
Chapter 1

PSYB30H3 Chapter 1: PSYB30 Notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Lisa Fiksenbaum
Chapter
1

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Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge
Chapter 1
Trait-descriptive adjectives: adjectives that can be used to describe
characteristics of people
Personality Defined
Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within
the individuals that are organized and relatively enduring and that
influence his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the
intrapsychic, physical, and social environment
Psychological traits are characteristics in which people are different
from each other
Traits describe the average tendencies of a person. A talkative person
can have quiet moments but over time they tend to emit verbal
behavior with greater frequency than those who are low on
talkativeness. Relatively enduring dispositions that exert a consistent
influence on behaviors in a variety of situations
Traits help describe people and help understand the dimensions of
difference among people. Traits help to explain behavior; the way
people act may be partly a function of their personality traits. Traits
can also predict future behavior
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Thus, personality is useful in describing, explaining and predicting
difference among individuals
Psychological mechanisms are like traits, except that the term
mechanisms refer more to the processes of personality. Most
psychological mechanisms involve an information-processing activity.
Someone who is extraverted, for example, may look for and notice
opportunities to interact with other people
Most mechanisms have three essential ingredients: inputs, decision,
and outputs
These make people more sensitive to certain kinds of information from
the environment (input), may make them more likely to think about
specific options (decision), and may guide their behavior toward
certain categories of action (outputs)
For example, extraverted people may look for opportunities to be with
other people, may consider in each situation the possibilities of human
contact and interaction, and encourage others to interact with him or
her
Only a few mechanisms are activated at a certain time such as during
life or death situations
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Within the individual means that personality is something a person
carries with him or herself over time and from one situation to the
next. Personality is somewhat stable over time and somewhat
consistent over situations
Organized means that the psychological traits and mechanisms for a
given person are not simply a random collection of elements. Our
personalities are organized in the sense that they contain decision
rules that govern which needs are activated, depending on the
circumstances
Psychological traits are enduring over time, particularly in adulthood,
and are somewhat consistent over situations. Anger is a state which is
temporary and traits are long term and stable
Some situations may be overpowering and suppress the expression of
psychological traits such as in a lecture
Influential forces of personality mean that personality traits and
mechanism can have an effect on people’s lives such as goals and
desires
Person-environment interactions include perceptions, selections,
evocations and manipulations
Perceptions refer to how one interprets things in the environment
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