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Chapter 8

PSYB30H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Explanatory Style, Attachment In Adults, Descriptive Knowledge


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier
Chapter
8

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Chapter 8: Social-Cognitive Aspects of Personality
Social-cognitive approach: humans operate in social environments. The perception of us affects the perception
of overs and vice versa. We use mental representation of others and self.
GEORGE KELLY THEORY
Motivation theory: person is motivated to predict what will happen to him/her. Motivation stems from
wanting to know more about the world
Personality of Personal Constructs
oPersonal construct: ways which constructing how things are. Each construct is bipolar – has 2
sides
oDifferent organizations/type of constructs:
Organizational corollary – organized in hierarchy
Superordinal (very general) and subordinal (more specific) attributes
Individual corollary – every individual’s construct is unique
Sociality corollary – seeing constructs in other person’s eyes to understand that person
Range corollary (range of convenience) – guide that helps anticipate given events
Modulation corollary – ability to modify, be open, flexible of new elements
Fragmentation corollary – seeing world as incompatible/contradicting, lack of sense
oThe unconscious – constructs that are nonverbal, submerged, suspended. They channel
behaviour
oAnxiety – fear of the unknown, unprepared constructs for the unanticipated event
oGuilt – dislodgement of core role structure (significant relation to others). Feels he/she no longer
value
THE REP TEST
Role construct repertory Test (Rep Test): assessment to explore personal constructs designed by
Kelly
Examine cognitive complexity  more different constructs = higher cognitive complexity
Examines Construct similarity  more similar constructs = people become closer friends for longer
periods
People are drawn by perception of world (their constructs), not how their behaviour (e.g. friendliness)
COGNITIVE STYLE AND PERSONALITY
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Cognitive Style: how people process information characteristically. A study b/w personality and
intelligence/cognition
Field Independence-Dependence
Field Dependent (FD)  perception/judgement depends on field/environment to solve problems. Relies
on external frames of reference and context. They reshape their perception according to environment.
Processing is global and intuitive, which leads them to seek occupations such as humanitarian, social
worker, counsellor etc.
Field Independent (FI)  use inner cues to make judgement/perception and bypasses fields. Processing
is very analytical and is good at extracting information. They are more objective and into specific
content such as science, math, computer science etc.
Women have higher FD, men have higher FI.
Hunter-Gatherer Society  more towards FI, agriculture society  more towards FD
Integrative Complexity
Integrative complexity (IC): How people reason their interpretation/processing of the world
High IC = see more interconnections + distinctions and offers more explanations
Low IC = see issue as more holistic, and provide fewer simple explanations
Politicians have simple IC during election type. Post-election time is when they demonstrate high IC
Extremists have lower IC in general than moderate individuals
Lower IC during illness, stress and time before death (terminal drop)
Higher IC as you age
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY AND THE PERSON
Rational person seeking information of social world to regulate behaviour and enact on goals/plans
Social Intelligence
Social Int: skills/ability/knowledge to social situations to interpret and solve problems in life
oConcepts (declarative-semantic knowledge): abstracts of “things”  who you are, perception
of others.
oEpisodes (declarative-episodic knowledge): concrete knowledge of “things”  memories from
past
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