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Chapter 5

PSYB30H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Prefrontal Cortex, Authoritarian Personality, Agreeableness


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier
Chapter
5

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Chapter 5: Basic Traits- In the Brain and in Behaviour
* Contexts that encourage and support outgoing and lively behaviour are likely to predict outgoing and
lively behaviour
Extraversion
all time superstar for personality traits
broad and bipolar continuum, running from high end to low end
extremely high extraversion and extremely low introversion
matter of degree
few 100% extraverts or 100% introverts
family of related of smaller traits - sociability, warmth, and excitement seeking
described as outgoing, sociable
introverts = shy, inhibited, withdrawn, taciturn, quiet
E emphasized on social meanings
direct their energy out to social world - Carl Jung
introverts - towards private thought and fantasy
Han Eysenck - extravert is outgoing, sociable, enthusiastic, but also impulsive and heedless
introvert = quiet, withdrawn, contemplative , deliberate, likely to take bad risks, prefer solitary,
extraverts - more socially dominate, gambling, sexually active
both preform different on tasks
extraverts - tasks divided attention, resistance to distraction and resistance to interference , more
positive affect in everyday life - less responsive to punishment than introverts
introverts - vigilance and careful attention to details - dwell on negative and punitive features of certain
social situations
extraverts - motivated by punishment to work even faster - better regulate thier moods, emotional ratio
to positive side , tend to recall more positive moods in a period of time, more assertive, more social
competence and effectiveness, more social skills = more happiness - more sensitive to rewarding
things in daily life
E sometimes renamed as positive emotionality or positive affectivity
Neuroticism
extreme sports - sensation seeking - need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and experiences
and the willingness to take on physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences

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more likely to do drugs, gamble
biological - more MAO - enzyme monoamine oxidase
it helps regulate the level of neurotransmitters in body and break down the neurotransmitter in the
synapse
people with low levels of MAO - do danger seeking experiences to raise it neuroticism - measures of
chronic anxiety, depression, excessive emotionality, nervousness, moodiness, hostility, vulnerability,
self- consciousness, and hypochondriasis
continuum from emotional instability to emotional stability
Watson and Clark - experience of negative emotions, such as sadness, anger, fear, anxiety, guilt and
the alike
negative affectivity
Tendency to be distressed, upset in many realms of their lives, chronically worried, nervous, insecure,
low opinion of themselves
high level of N = depression and generalized anxiety, more stress and levels of homesickness
extraverts and introverts do NOT differ with the respect of bad feelings
strongest predictor of psychological distress than were environmental factors are negative changes in
one’s life
high N - middle age as crisis - predicts a poor quality of life - major predictor of divorce,
high N - expose individuals to aa greater number of stressful daily events
high reactivity to stressful events - ineffective coping strategies such as self-blaming and wishful
thinking
self -defeating strategies that do not relieve their anxiety, depression and hostility in facing daily set
backs
even when bad things aren’t happening, neuroticism brings it with bad feeling neurotic cascade - 5
different processes reinforce each other in neuroticism to cause a buildup and strong release of
negative emotion
1st - hyperactivity -sensitive to signals of punishment, negative affect in environment - respond strong
to major setbacks and minor hassles in life
2nd - differential exposure - experience negative events more frequently, more sensitive to negative
events to begin with
3rd - differential appraisal - interpret different kinds of events
4th- special sensitivity - create mood spillover, one area of life spill over to the next and negative moods
from one day ruin the next
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