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7- Motives & Goals: What Do We Want in Life?
Introduction: ( motivation )
Motivation – forces or factors, usually viewed as residing within the person , that energize and direct
behavior. Motivational ideas and personality psychology includes wants, desires, needs, goals, strivings,
The Psychoanalytic View: (psychoanalysis, life Instincts, death Instincts)
Psychoanalysis – general term for the approach to psychology pioneered by Floyd and others who tend
to focus on the unconscious determinant of behavior, intrapsychic conflicts, the instinctual drives
concerning sexuality and aggression. The term also denotes the process of engaging in psychotherapy
from a psychoanalytic standpoint.
Life instincts (Eros)- Freud’s concept for a group of instincts serving sexual reproduction and survival.
Death instincts (Thanatos)-Freud's concept for a group of instinctual drives assumed to motivate the
person door word behavior and experience promoting one's own death and destruction towards others.
Contrast with life instincts or Eros.
Feature 7.8: Sigmund Freud and the Birth of Psychoanalysis: (romanticism, hysteria)
Romanticism – an intellectual movement in Western civilization [circa 1790 – 1850] rejecting classical
teachings of reason, order, and the common good in favor of the celebration of the vigorous and
passionate life of the individual.
Hysteria a form of psychotherapy in which a person suffers from bodily symptoms, such as blindness or
paralysis, that have no physical or biological cause.
The Unconscious- (the unconscious, topographical model)
The unconscious – this state of being outside of awareness. For Freud, the unconscious is a shadowy
realm of the mind wherein reside repressed thoughts, feelings, memories, conflicts, and the like.
Topo graphical model – Freud's model of the mind, which distinguishes among the conscious,
preconscious, and unconscious regions. The conscious corresponds to everyday awareness; the
preconscious contains the contents of ordinary memory, to which awareness may be direct it at any
time; and the unconscious contains wishes, feelings, memories, and so on that have been repressed
because they threaten the well-being of the conscious self.
Repression & Repressors ( repression, repressors, resilience)
Repression – Freud's concept for the process of casting thoughts, memories, feelings, and conflict out of
consciousness, rendering them unremembered.
Repressor's – as operationalized in research, individuals who show both levels of inside the high levels of
defensiveness. Research suggests that the oppressors have less access than do other people to negative
emotional memories about the self.
Resilience – the ability to overcome difficult obstacles in life and thrive amidst adversity.
The Ego’s Defenses (id, pleasure principle, primary process thinking, ego, reality principle,
secondary process thinking, defense mechanisms, superego, ego psychologists, denial,
Id- one of three main division in Freud's structural model of the mind, serving as the home for instinctual
impulses of sex and aggression and their conscious derivative wishes, fantasies, and inclinations.
Pleasure principle – in Freudian theory, the principle whereby the Id operates, dictating that the
individuals seek immediate gratification of instinctual impulses and wishes. Contrast with reality
Primary process thinking – a very loose and irrational form of thinking driven by instinctual demand
associated with Freud’s Id. Contrasts with secondary process.
Ego- one of three division in Freud structural model of mine, serving as the mediator among the Id,
super ego and external reality, and operating according to the reality principle. According to Loevinger, a
person's overall framework of meaning, the master synthesizing I.
Reality principle- in Freudian theory, the principle whereby the ego operates, pushing the individual
toward behavior aimed at coping with conflict and demands, rationally weighing choices, defending
against various threats to the well-being of the person. Contrasts with the pleasure principle.
Secondary process thinking – rational cognitive activity associated with the functioning of the ego
[Freud]. Contrast with primary process.
Defense mechanisms – unconscious strategies of the ego [Freud] designed to distort reality in order to