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Chapter 11

PSYB30H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Functional Response, Self-Actualization, Abraham Maslow


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Lisa Fiksenbaum
Chapter
11

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Personality
Chapter 11: Motives & Personality (Intrapsychic Domain)
Basic Concepts
Motives are internal states that arouse and direct behaviour toward specific objects or goals.
A motive is often caused by a “deficit”, a lack of something; for example, if a person has not eaten
for a while, he or she is motivated by hunger.
Motives differ from each other in both type & amount.
oHunger differs from thirst, for example, and both of these differ from the motive to
achieve & excel.
Also, motives are often based on needs, states of tension within a person.
What term best describes a state of tension within a person usually caused by a lack of
something?: “Need
The need to eat creates the motive of hunger; the motive for hunger causes the person to seek out
food.
Motives propel people to perceive, think and act in specific ways that satisfy the need.
Motive psychologist, like psychoanalysts, believe that fantasies, free associations, and responses to
projective techniques reveal the unconscious motivation behind many thoughts, feelings, & behaviours.
Motives satisfy needs with: thought, fantasies, and behaviors.
From a theoretical point of view, motives are like dispositions in that:
People differ from one another in the type and strength of their motives.
These differences are measurable.
These differences cause or are associated with important life outcomes, such as business success or
marital satisfaction.
Differences among people in the relative amounts of various motives are stable over time.
Motives may provide one answer to the question “why do people do what they do?”
Motivational psychologists ask which of the following questions?: What do people want?
Which of these psychologists was the first to develop a modern theory of motivation?: Henry Murray
Henry Murray was a: physician, embryologist, and biochemist before turning to work on motivation.
Need
Henry Murray began by defining the term “need”, a concept he viewed as similar to the analytic concept of
drive.
Needs organize perception, guiding us to see what we want (or need) to see.
A need organizes action by compelling a person to do what is necessary to fulfill the need.
A person, who has a need to achieve for example, often makes sacrifices and works hard at the
task in which he or she want to excel.
Murray believed that needs referred to states of tension and that satisfying the need reduces
tension.
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oAccording to Murray, people might purposely increase tension: because the process of
reducing tension can be pleasurable.
Henry Murray assumed that needs varied: (1) Over time; (2) By situation; (3) Between People
Murray proposed a list of fundamental human needs; each need is associated with:
1. A specific desire or intention.
2. A particular set of emotions.
3. Specific action tendencies, and each need can be described with trait names.
* Murray's list included: more than 10 needs.
The idea that people have different levels of different needs is know as: hierarchy of needs.
An individual’s various needs can be thought of as existing at different levels of strength
For example, a person might have a high need for dominance, an average need for affiliation, and
a low need for achievement.
Each need interacts with the various other needs within each person; this interaction is what makes
the concept of motive dynamic.
The term “dynamic” is used to refer to the mutual influence of forces within a person— in this
case, the interaction of various motives within a person.
Why do we think of motives as dynamic?: Motives interact with one another within a person.
Press
According to Murray, elements in the environment affected a person’s needs; he used the term press to refer
to need-relevant aspects of the environment.
Murray also introduced the notion that there is a so-called real environment (which he called alpha press, or
objective reality) and a perceived environment (called beta press, or reality as it is perceived).
Beta press refers to the: subjective features of the environment.
Alpha press: refers to the objective features of the environment.
Apperception and the TAT
Murray held that a person’s needs influenced how he or she perceived the environment, especially when the
environment is ambiguous (as when a stranger smiles at the person).
The act of interpreting the environment and perceiving the meaning of what is going on in a situation
is termed: apperception.
Our needs and motives influence apperception; we might ask that individual to interpret what is
going on in a variety of situations.
Henry Murray and Christiana Morgan developed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
The TAT consists of a set of black-and-white images that are ambiguous; the person is then asked to
make up a story about what is happening in the pictures.
Murray developed the Thematic Apperception Test in the: 1930s.
The TAT was published in 1935.
The essential feature of the TAT and similar projective techniques are that (1) the subject is given an
ambiguous stimulus, usually a picture, and (2) he or she is asked to describe and interpret what is
going on.
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An important feature of the Thematic Apperception Test is that it is: ambiguous.
The Thematic Apperception Test is a(n) : projective test.
Some argue that projective tests in general, and the TAT is less useful as measures of personality than other
methods, such as questionnaires.
We can make a distinction between using the TAT to assess state levels of needs and trait levels of needs.
State levels of a need refer to a person’s momentary amount of a specific need, which can fluctuate
with specific circumstances.
The assessment of trait levels of a need refers to measuring a person’s average tendency, or their set
point, on the specific trait.
The idea is that people differ from each other in their typical or average amount of specific
needs.
The assessment of trait levels is most useful in determining difference among individuals in their
average tendencies toward particular needs.
A newer form of assessing motives is the Multi-Motive Grid, which combines features of the TAT with
features of self-report questionnaires.
The Multi-Motive Grid is: relatively new technique used to assess motives.
The TAT remains a popular personality assessment technique today, even though it has a low test-retest
reliability.
A Closer Look: TAT & Questionnaire Measures of Motives .
McClelland described two different types of motivation: implicit motivation and self-attributed motivation.
Implicit motivation: are motives based on needs, such as the need for achievement (nAch), the need for
power (nPow), and the need for intimacy (nInt), as they are measured in fantasy-based (i.e., TAT) measures.
When the TAT is used to measure these motives, they are called implicit, b/c the person writing the
stories are NOT explicitly telling the psychologists about themselves.
Self-attributed motivation, which McClelland argued reflects primarily a person’s self-awareness of his or
her own conscious motives or “normative beliefs about desirable goals and modes of conduct”.
Some researchers have criticized the Thematic Apperception Test because:
It has poor test-retest reliability
Scores from different pictures do not correlate highly
It has poor internal reliability
*All of these
Spangler found that the: Thematic Apperception Test was a better predictor of the long-term effects of
motives and the: questionnaire method was a better predictor of the short-term effects of motives.
The name most associated with research on the need for achievement is: David McClelland.
People high in the need for achievement are very concerned with: doing things better.
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