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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 2
EVOLUTION AND HUMAN NATURE
The study of persons must begin with human nature.
Bad nature
The Christian church—by virtue of original
sin, we are all fundamental bad.
The book of Genesis—Adams and Eves
original sin, passed down from one human
generation to the next.
All the words great religions—natural state of
human is fundamentally flawed in some
manner, need a deliverance from the original
state.
Good nature
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Shelly and Keats
human nature is fundamentally innocent and
good, noble and pure at birth.
John Locke—human nature is a blank slate
(tabula rasa), ready to be shaped in to any form
by environment.
EVOLUTIONARY HERITAGE
Principles of Evolution
A fundamental property of living things is that they
propagate, making for the continuity of life from one
generation to the next.
www.notesolution.com
Steve Pinker
Individual organisms are the product of a long chain of
evolutionary events whereby replicating systems essentially
compete for limited resources, successful systems can
produce more viable copies for the next generation. As
environments change, designs of organisms change, not in
direct response to environmental changes but simply
because some designs of organisms will prove to be more
successful in promoting replication than others.
Darwin
All existing living forms have evolved over time in response
to their interactions w/ environments. Facing limited
environmental resources for survival and replication,
organisms compete w/ one another, and ultimately the
fittest designs win out.
The key to evolution over time is natural selection
Nature gradually selects those characteristics that promote
survival and reproductive success. Organisms possessing
the advantageous characteristic should live longer and
produce more offspring.
In this way, nature selects and causes to persist, the most
adaptive characteristics in a species.
Genes are responsible for the inheritance of
characteristics.
Genetic mutation may render the organism less left;
may make for accidental advantages (e.g. lactose
tolerance)
www.notesolution.com
Through evolution, organisms have been designed to
function such the genes that lie behind those designs
are replicated in subsequent generations.
The evolutionary imperative is to replicate the genes.
The selfish gene (Richard Dawkins)
Genes aim only for: self-replication. Persons
are designed to engage in behaviors that
ultimately make for the replication of the
genes that determine their design.
Two ways that persons can promote the likelihood of
replicating in the next generation those genes that are
responsible for their very design and existence.
1) to generate and promote ones own biological
offspring
2) to promote the production and well-being of those
who share the same genes.
e.g. a woman has no offspring, while her sister
have six children=three offspring
more than a woman who bore two children but
whose sister bore none.
Altruism and self-sacrificial acts unexplained, until
William Hamilton introduced inclusive fitness.
--An organisms inclusive fitness is its overall ability to
maximize the replication of the genes.
Assisting, caring their kin and altruistic tendencies should
be selected by nature, functioned to enhance the inclusive
fitness.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 2 EVOLUTION AND HUMAN NATURE The study of persons must begin with human nature. Bad nature The Christian churchby virtue of original sin, we are all fundamental bad. The book of GenesisAdams and Eves original sin, passed down from one human generation to the next. All the words great religionsnatural state of human is fundamentally flawed in some manner, need a deliverance from the original state. Good nature Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Shelly and Keats human nature is fundamentally innocent and good, noble and pure at birth. John Lockehuman nature is a blank slate (tabula rasa), ready to be shaped in to any form by environment. EVOLUTIONARY HERITAGE Principles of Evolution A fundamental property of living things is that they propagate, making for the continuity of life from one generation to the next. www.notesolution.com Steve Pinker Individual organisms are the product of a long chain of evolutionary events whereby replicating systems essentially compete for limited resources, successful systems can produce more viable copies for the next generation. As environments change, designs of organisms change, not in direct response to environmental changes but simply because some designs of organisms will prove to be more successful in promoting replication than others. Darwin All existing living forms have evolved over time in response to their interactions w environments. Facing limited environmental resources for survival and replication, organisms compete w one another, and ultimately the fittest designs win out. The key to evolution over time is natural selection Nature gradually selects those characteristics that promote survival and reproductive success. Organisms possessing the advantageous characteristic should live longer and produce more offspring. In this way, nature selects and causes to persist, the most adaptive characteristics in a species. Genes are responsible for the inheritance of characteristics. Genetic mutation may render the organism less left; may make for accidental advantages (e.g. lactose tolerance) www.notesolution.com
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