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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 / Lecture

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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: SELF-DETERMINATION
Overview
Part I. Humanism
Part II. Self-Determination
Part III. Goals & Self-Concordance
PART I : Overview
Humanistic Approaches to Psychology
Rogers Fully Functioning Person
Maslows Self-Actualizer
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Humanism
An optimistic and positive view of the person as inherently good
Views the human being as rational, purposeful, and autonomous, capable of creativity and experiencing deep
and profound insights into reality
We are fundamentally good as a specie, we are rational, we are capable of rationality, we are capable
of conscious intention and purpose, we are capable of autonomous self-regulation,
The 3rd force of psychology, a viable viewpoint on human nature that is distinctive from both psychoanalysis
(dark)and behaviourism (neutral, product of our learning history)
The humanistic tradition in comparison with psychoanalysis and behaviourism adopts a substantially
optimistic view of the human condition
From the humanistic view, all humans are essentially good and all of us intrinsically on a positive
developmental trajectory
All of us come into the world with potentials, and we are constitutionally designed to realize these potentials.
Whether we do is largely a function of the environment that we find ourselves in
Humanistic often attending to the surrounding environment and asking is this environment supporting or
nourishing the growth and the development of the person who occupies it
Humanistic gives us far more credit for our capacity to understand ourselves and the world around us
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
The organism has but one basic tendency and strivingto actualize, maintain, and enhance the
experiencing organism. (Rogers, 1951)
Rogers believe that inside of each of us is a true self; there is a person we intended to become, and as
a part of our innate developmental trajectory, we will realize that true person, we are all in the
process of becoming that person we are meant to be and that true self is inside of us always
There are environments that will support this development and there are environments that will
derail it. How do you know when youre taking the right steps towards becoming the person you are
meant to be? How do you know that the steps youre taking, the choice youre making is the right
one? How its going to actualize the person that true self whom Rogers believe is inside of you?
The Organismic Valuing Process (OVP)
Humans have a fundamental capacity to perceive the growth-relevant implications of their
experiences and choices
Roger speculated there is a mechanism that informs us as to whether or not we are taking growth
promoting steps in our development
The Organismic Valuing Process (OVP) is the little voice in our head that sometimes we hear, that
tells us what we are doing is right or wrong
Rogers opinion what that people dont need to be told what is the right thing to do, people need far
less advice than we give them because he believes all of us have this intuitive structure that feeds
back to us information about whether or not the choices were making are right or wrong, whether
the choices we are making are going to actualize our true self or frustrate it
www.notesolution.com
OVP is a fundamental capacity that is built in to the species to perceive the implications of our
experiences and choices for our personal growth
It is the basic idea that we have these little voices in our head that let us know when were doing
something stupid
Carl Rogers was convinced at the foundation of things, a single motivation underlying all human behavior
The Fully Functioning Person
Openness to Experience
Different from the Big Five
This idea is to characterize the fully functional person is free of the need to defensively to distort the
reality they experience
They are able to listen attentively without anxiety both within the stimuli within them and the
stimuli from the outer environment
They are non-defensive and receptive to what reality is bringing to their attention; both inner, the
bodily we experience as well as the social reality we experience from outside
Isnt overwhelmed with insecurities and defensive preoccupations, they can confront the reality of
things
They have the stability of characters to face negative feedback, criticism, rejection, failure and so on
Existential Living
The fully functioning person isnt preoccupied with the remembered past or with an anticipated
future, they arent overwhelmed with the regrets from choices they’ve made before and they arent
overwhelmed with the feelings of apprehension about the choices they have to make in the future.
They simply live within the moment
They are in the present moment and fully appreciate the present moment offers
Self-Trust
A fully functioning person has to trust their inner person and abide by what is it the OVP is
instructing them to do
They know their instincts leads to growth promoting outcomes, so they trust themselves and they go
with their gut
A fully functioning person is a term Rogers used to characterize someone who is actualizing their inner
potentials and is bringing out that true sense of self
On Becoming a Person
Positive Regard
All of us have an innate need to be loved and to be accepted, particularly by our parents in early ages
but as we age, by other socializing agents as well, like peers, authority figures
All of us have a need for positive regard. We need to look at others and see reflected in them an
appreciation and respect in a steam that they have for us
Conditions of Worth
Most of us as a part of maturation finds that there are conditions attached to the worth we received
Most of us find that parents, teachers and other socializing agents are not unconditional in the
regards to us
More than not there are conditions to be met and whether these conditions are stated explicitly or
rather just insinuated and left implicit
Most of us figure out along the way that something things will lead to approval and other things will
lead to disapproval
As we grow we are learning what things we need to do and what kind of people we need to be in
order to secure love and attention and affection from others
Conditional Positive Regard
The idea of love and approval are earned occasionally by meeting certain conditions
www.notesolution.com
As we grow, we learn the conditions upon which our worth is attached and our conditions upon which
positive regard will be bestowed
Client-Centered Therapy
Unconditional Positive Regard
The counsellor must provide unconditional positive regard
The counsellor must accept and value the client without reservation or condition of worth
The counsellor must be fully and unconditionally accepting of all the components of the self that the
client is bringing in to the therapy session
Empathic Understanding
A key way of conveying your unconditional positive regard as a counsellor is by expressing your
empathic understanding of the clients internal frame of reference
You must in your words to the client convey you see the world, you are capable of seeing the world as
the client sees it
You must be able to adopt the same kind of reference as the client do and you can validate the
perspective they have on their own history
Reflection
Reflection is a specific behaviour that a counsellor or a psychotherapist would use to convey their
empathic understanding
Reflection is when a counsellor accurately expresses the clients attitude and feelings. You need to
put into words what the client has said or trying to say and do it in such a way they get the fact that
you get it
You are able to convey in some extent the feelings they are having also in existence inside you
The behaviour that were reflecting back to the client, his/her own attitude or feeling is thought over
the course of psychotherapy to have a transformative impact on the clients sense of self
Psychotherapy deals primarily with the organization and the functioning of the self. There are many
elements of experience which the self cannot face, cannot clearly perceive because to face them or admit
them would be inconsistent with and threatening to the current organization of the self. In client-centred
therapy, the client finds in the counsellor a genuine alter ego in an operational and technical sense. A self
that has temporarily divested itself as far as possible of its own self (the counsellor is giving up his/her own
identity) except for the one quality of endeavouring to understand (the counsellor is giving up all of his/her
own sense of self except for the one striving which is to embody what it is the patient/client is expressing). In
the therapeutic experience too see ones own attitudes, confusions, ambivalences, feelings and perceptions
accurately express by another but strip of their complication of emotions is to see oneself objectively and
paves the way for acceptance into the self of all these elements which are now more clearly perceived.
Reorganization of the self and more integrated of the self are thus furthered Carl Rogers
Your goal is as a counsellor frame some attitude or experience or aspects of the patient/client that
he/she cannot accept and show that you accepted. By having that acceptance you reflected back at
them, they get it and they can bring it to the surface and included in part of who they are because
they see reflected in you, your understanding and acceptance, and because of that these disport
component of the self that have been fragmented off or broken off or hidden from view are brought
into the light, brought into the whole self, and reorganize so that you can become that true person
that Rogers thought you were always intended to be
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
Most famous for the idea that there is a hierarchy of basic needs
These needs are all based on absences
These are all needs that we have or experience them as needs when we are deprived
of them and we are motivated to store them and to re-acquire them
There is a hierarchy in the form that you experience a regression down the
www.notesolution.com

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Description
: SELF-DETERMINATION Overview Part I. Humanism Part II. Self-Determination Part III. Goals & Self-Concordance PART I : Overview Humanistic Approaches to Psychology Rogers Fully Functioning Person Maslows Self-Actualizer - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Humanism An optimistic and positive view of the person as inherently good Views the human being as rational, purposeful, and autonomous, capable of creativity and experiencing deep and profound insights into reality We are fundamentally good as a specie, we are rational, we are capable of rationality, we are capable of conscious intention and purpose, we are capable of autonomous self-regulation, The 3rd force of psychology, a viable viewpoint on human nature that is distinctive from both psychoanalysis (dark)and behaviourism (neutral, product of our learning history) The humanistic tradition in comparison with psychoanalysis and behaviourism adopts a substantially optimistic view of the human condition From the humanistic view, all humans are essentially good and all of us intrinsically on a positive developmental trajectory All of us come into the world with potentials, and we are constitutionally designed to realize these potentials. Whether we do is largely a function of the environment that we find ourselves in Humanistic often attending to the surrounding environment and asking is this environment supporting or nourishing the growth and the development of the person who occupies it Humanistic gives us far more credit for our capacity to understand ourselves and the world around us Carl Rogers (1902-1987) The organism has but one basic tendency and strivingto actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism. (Rogers, 1951) Rogers believe that inside of each of us is a true self; there is a person we intended to become, and as a part of our innate developmental trajectory, we will realize that true person, we are all in the process of becoming that person we are meant to be and that true self is inside of us always There are environments that will support this development and there are environments that will derail it. How do you know when youre taking the right steps towards becoming the person you are meant to be? How do you know that the steps youre taking, the choice youre making is the right one? How its going to actualize the person that true self whom Rogers believe is inside of you? The Organismic Valuing Process (OVP) Humans have a fundamental capacity to perceive the growth-relevant implications of their experiences and choices Roger speculated there is a mechanism that informs us as to whether or not we are taking growth promoting steps in our development The Organismic Valuing Process (OVP) is the little voice in our head that sometimes we hear, that tells us what we are doing is right or wrong Rogers opinion what that people dont need to be told what is the right thing to do, people need far less advice than we give them because he believes all of us have this intuitive structure that feeds back to us information about whether or not the choices were making are right or wrong, whether the choices we are making are going to actualize our true self or frustrate it www.notesolution.com OVP is a fundamental capacity that is built in to the species to perceive the implications of our experiences and choices for our personal growth It is the basic idea that we have these little voices in our head that let us know when were doing something stupid Carl Rogers was convinced at the foundation of things, a single motivation underlying all human behavior The Fully Functioning Person Openness to Experience Different from the Big Five This idea is to characterize the fully functional person is free of the need to defensively to distort the reality they experience They are able to listen attentively without anxiety both within the stimuli within them and the stimuli from the outer environment They are non-defensive and receptive to what reality is bringing to their attention; both inner, the bodily we experience as well as the social reality we experience from outside Isnt overwhelmed with insecurities and defensive preoccupations, they can confront the reality of things They have the stability of characters to face negative feedback, criticism, rejection, failure and so on Existential Living The fully functioning person isnt preoccupied with the remembered past or with an anticipated future, they arent overwhelmed with the regrets from choices theyve made before and they arent overwhelmed with the feelings of apprehension about the choices they have to make in the future. They simply live within the moment They are in the present moment and fully appreciate the present moment offers Self-Trust A fully functioning person has to trust their inner person and abide by what is it the OVP is instructing them to do They know their instincts leads to growth promoting outcomes, so they trust themselves and they go with their gut A fully functioning person is a term Rogers used to characterize someone who is actualizing their inner potentials and is bringing out that true sense of self On Becoming a Person Positive Regard All of us have an innate need to be loved and to be accepted, particularly by our parents in early ages but as we age, by other socializing agents as well, like peers, authority figures All of us have a need for positive regard. We need to look at others and see reflected in them an appreciation and respect in a steam that they have for us Conditions of Worth Most of us as a part of maturation finds that there are conditions attached to the worth we received Most of us find that parents, teachers and other socializing agents are not unconditional in the regards to us More than not there are conditions to be met and whether these conditions are stated explicitly or rather just insinuated and left implicit Most of us figure out along the way that something things will lead to approval and other things will lead to disapproval As we grow we are learning what things we need to do and what kind of people we need to be in order to secure love and attention and affection from others Conditional Positive Regard The idea of love and approval are earned occasionally by meeting certain conditions www.notesolution.com As we grow, we learn the conditions upon which our worth is attached and our conditions upon which positive regard will be bestowed Client-Centered Therapy Unconditional Positive Regard The counsellor must provide unconditional positive regard The counsellor must accept and value the client without reservation or condition of worth The counsellor must be fully and unconditionally accepting of all the components of the self that the client is bringing in to the therapy session Empathic Understanding A key way of conveying your unconditional positive regard as a counsellor is by expressing your empathic understanding of the clients internal frame of reference You must in your words to the client convey you see the world, you are capable of seeing the world as the client sees it You must be able to adopt the same kind of reference as the client do and you can validate the perspective they have on their own history Reflection Reflection is a specific behaviour that a counsellor or a psychotherapist would use to convey their empathic understanding Reflection is when a counsellor accurately expresses the clients attitude and feelings. You need to put into words what the client has said or trying to say and do it in such a way they get the fact that you get it You are able to convey in some extent the feelings they are having also in existence inside you The behaviour that were reflecting back to the client, his/her own attitude or feeling is thought over the course of psychotherapy to have a transformative impact on the clients sense of self Psychotherapy deals primarily with the organization and the functioning of the self. There are many elements of experience which the self cannot face, cannot clearly perceive because to face them or admit them would be inconsistent with and threatening to the current organization of the self. In client-centred
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