oChild begin to take initiative in their daily lives – striving to
master, divide, and conquer their worlds.
oThe guilt they experience is when their aggressive attempts to
make the world their own run afoul and as they, often
unwittingly, threaten to hurt or damage others and their
oBoys -> INTRUSIVE MODE. “the intrusion into other bodies
by physical attack.”
oGirls -> INCLUSIVE MODE. “teasing, demanding and
oBoth girls and boys at this state in the development strongly
desire to make the world their own – to be king and queen, all
powerful and all important, the center of everything.
Fourth Stage (LATENCY STAGE) (INDUSTRY VS. INFERIORITY
oLibido is rarely expressed in an overt manner.
oChildren channel instinctual energy into play, schoolwork, and
oThe elementary-school years (6 to 7 years) are a time of
expanding socialization as children come to internalize the
values, norms, rules, and skills offered by society.
oThis schooling is designed to render the young boy or girl
proficient in using the tools and assuming the roles of
oThe protagonist of the fourth stage is the industrious
schoolchild learns the rudimentary skills required to become a
productive member of society.
oIt is during this highly formative developmental period that
churches and schools deliver their most influential lessons on
how to be a good boy or girl.
The Problem of Identity
For Erikson, the early stages are but a prelude to the main act of late
adolescence and young adulthood. Emerging adulthood.
The four stages of childhood leave the person with a unique pool of
resources and handicaps, strengths and weaknesses that will be called
upon in the making of an identity.
The past determines the future but at the same time, it can be reversed.
The adolescence adult looks back upon childhood now and comes to
decide what childhood meant. We cannot literally change what happened
already but we change its meaning.
Fifth Stage (GENITAL STAGE) (IDENTITY VS. ROLE
CONFUSION – Erikson)
oFor Freud, this is the last stage of development.
oPhysiological changes of puberty and the associated awakening
of overt sexual longing in the teenage years signal the end of
the libido’s transformations.
oIt marks the end of childhood, closing the chapters to
autonomy, trust, initiative and industry.
oWhy do we confront the identity issue first in adolescence? The
answers can be categorized in 3 groups: BODY, COGNITION,
As adolescents, we find ourselves unwittingly
inhabitants of new adult-like bodies.
Both frightening and wonderful.
Puberty may mark a turning point in the adolescent’s
perceived developmental course in the adolescent’s
mind. A bygone era.
Major role in launching the identity chapter of
Erikson’s generic life story.
Jean Piaget argued that in adolescence many people
enter the cognitive stage of FORMAL OPERATIONS.
•This is the time in the life cycle that we are
first able to think about the world and
about ourselves in highly abstract terms.
•One is able to reason about what is and
what might be in terms of verbally stated
and logically deduced hypotheses.
The 10-year old is a slave to concrete fact. (ex. name
all 50 states of America) Reality is everything.
For the adolescent, with formal operations, reality is
understood as a subset of what might be.
The serious questioning of the self (who am I?) is
catalyzed by the cognitive emergence of formal
Adolescents begin to take seriously the possibilities
of alternative lives and systems of living, motivation
them in some cases to explore new and previously
unthinkable ways of experiencing the world and to