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Chapter 9

Chapter 9

11 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 9 Developmental Stages and Tasks
Martin Luther was a Catholic monk when he suddenly fell raving to the
ground one day and began roaring like a bull.
He began screaming like one possessed demon. I am not! I am not this! I
am nothing! I do not know who I am!
In psychological terms, this basic problem is called EGO IDENTITY.
2 fundamental questions of identity: Who am I? How do I fit into the
adult world?
Martin Luthers Identity Crisis
Credited with starting the massive religious and cultural movement
termed the Protestant Reformation.
Credited with bringing the sacred writings of Christianity to the
common people by providing the first authoritative translation of the
Bible into German.
Luther has been viewed as a monumental political figure in German
history one of the fathers of German nationalism and a hero for some
revolutionaries.
One of the most provocative applications of personality theory to the life
course of a single adult is Erik Ericsons psychobiographical analysis of
Luthers identity formation.
First analysis is how Luther tries to fit in the choir”. This expresses the
utter terror and confusion of a young man who has come to deny the very
assumptions upon which he has built his own sense of who he is and how
he fits into the adult world.
This symbolizes the low point of Luthers identity struggle.
In the summer of 1505, Luther was following the career path sketched
out by his father, Hans Luder, a capitalist. He wanted him to be a
lawyer.
One summer evening, a bolt of lightning struck the ground near him, he
screamed, Help me St. Anna I want to be a monk!
He prayed more than the others. He denied himself of the simplest
earthly comforts.
Luther struggled daily with the Devil, seeing him, fleeing, fighting,
hating, fearing him as a real person with superhuman power.
The Devil was the old evil foe.
Faith in God served as the mighty fortress and sword and shield
victorious
In psychological standpoint, Luther projected the devil onto others.
Especially his enemies.
The seed of Luthers discontent with the pope and the church were sown
in the Erfurt monastery as he witnessed the enactment of corrupt
church policies.
When he fit in the choir, Luther was renouncing his old identity as an
obedient monk, identifying the Roman church as an enemy rather than
the saviour.
Luther envisioned a new image of God more directly accessible to the
common person than the distant God of the catholic orthodoxy.
Salvation was to be achieved by faith, not through good deeds.
People encounter God in the here and now through Gods son Jesus. Only
need to accept Jesus and have faith that Jesus is the son of God- in order
to be redeemed.
Over the course of his adult life, Luther continued to work on his
identity.
He continued to change and develop with respect to his understanding of
who he was and how he fit into the world.
According to Erikson, during this critical period (late adolescence and
early adult life) in the human lifespan that many of us FIRST confront
the problem of identity.
Eriksons concept of identity is a characteristic DEVELOPMENTAL
adaptation.
In Martin Luthers individuality, we might talk about high
conscientiousness and neuroticm.
At the dispositional trait level, Luther was consistently hard working
and strong-willed, subject to intense emotional mood swings, sometimes
stubborn and obsessive. Oscillate between two poles of openness to
experience.
Erik Eriksons theory of psychosocial developmental lays out 8 stages of
life through individuals progress, from birth to death.
Erik Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development
Erik Homburger Erikson was born of Danish parent in 1902, Germany.
www.notesolution.com
Protestant father abandoned the family. Jewish mother remarried.
He did not look like a Jew. Erikson developed an image of self as an
OUTSIDER, forced to define clearly how he was different from as well as
similar to others in his environment.
An exceptional student, he abandoned his adoptive fathers hope of him
being a physician and wandered around Europe, studying art.
During this very difficult period, he experienced a crisis in identity that
brought with it excessive anxiety and even occasional panic. This was
because of the inability to work with discipline and regularity.
He eventually undertook training in psychoanalysis with and was
psychoanalyzed by Anna Freud.
In 1939, he became a naturalized American citizen and officially adopted
the surname of Erikson, a highly symbolic event that marked the
maturation of his own identity.
Developmental Stages in Childhood
The strongest intellectual influence on Erik Erikson was Sigmund
Freud.
Freud the ultimate forces behind human behaviour and experience are
unconscious sexual and aggressive drives, libido energy that he
believed was derived from sexual desires.
In each stage, the libido expresses itself through a particular zone of the
body, called an EROGENOUS ZONE.
Eriksons major innovation was to take Freuds psychosexual stages of
the libido and transform them into a developmental model of
psychosocial tasks.
oEach stage is defined by a polarity in which a positive feature
of the stage is pitted against a negative feature.
The conflict must be addressed before the individual may move to the
next stage.
First stage of Development for Freud (ORAL STAGE) (TRUST VS.
MISTRUST Erikson)
oLibido is expressed through the mouth.
oThe infant experiences sensual pleasure in sucking the
mothers breast and other oral activities.
oSucking held psychological significant of establishing a bond
between the caregiver and the infant and providing a model for
later relationships in life.
oShe becomes the childs first human love object.
oErikson agrees with Freud that the libido is centred in the oral
zone as sucking at the mothers breast or bottle becomes the
starting point of sexual life.
oThe relationship between the mother and child in this stage
determines to which extent the child will experience basic
TRUST or security and basic MISTRUST or insecurity.
oSucking forms a bond that provides the infant with a sense of
trust, feeling of understanding that the world is safe.
oHealthy development is a function of the balance between the
two.
Second Stage (ANAL STAGE) (AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND
DOUBT Erikson)
o2 or 3 years of life, the toddlers sensual energy involve regular
cycles of tension build up and release providing sensual
pleasure.
oSuccessful toilet training signals certain degree of mastery
over the sexual instinct in that the libido comes under the
control of socially prescribed schedules.
oThe centerpiece of the 2 or 3 year olds psychosocial experience
is the struggle to attain a certain degree of autonomy, freedom,
independence, mastery of self to avoid humiliation, shame,
doubt.
oToilet training is important not so much as an expression of
the libido but as an achievement of self-mastery and control.
oThe second chapter of life is independence, self-mastery, self-
control and the avoidance of humiliation.
Third Stage (PHALLIC STAGE) (INITIATIVE VS. GUILT
Erikson)
oBetween 3 to 5 years
oChildren becomes fascinated with their own sex organs, and
become overtly curious about sexual practices among adults.
oDuring this stage, children may begin masturbating.
oChildren may unconsciously experience sexual feelings toward
one parent and aggressive feeling toward another at this time.
oOEDIPUS COMPLEX (story of a Greek young man who
unwittingly killed his father and slept with his mother.
oInitiative and guilt is the basic psychosocial issue for the
preschool boy or girl.
www.notesolution.com
oChild begin to take initiative in their daily lives striving to
master, divide, and conquer their worlds.
oThe guilt they experience is when their aggressive attempts to
make the world their own run afoul and as they, often
unwittingly, threaten to hurt or damage others and their
environment.
oBoys -> INTRUSIVE MODE. the intrusion into other bodies
by physical attack.
oGirls -> INCLUSIVE MODE. teasing, demanding and
grasping
oBoth girls and boys at this state in the development strongly
desire to make the world their own to be king and queen, all
powerful and all important, the center of everything.
Fourth Stage (LATENCY STAGE) (INDUSTRY VS. INFERIORITY
Erikson)
oLibido is rarely expressed in an overt manner.
oChildren channel instinctual energy into play, schoolwork, and
peer relations.
oThe elementary-school years (6 to 7 years) are a time of
expanding socialization as children come to internalize the
values, norms, rules, and skills offered by society.
oThis schooling is designed to render the young boy or girl
proficient in using the tools and assuming the roles of
adulthood.
oThe protagonist of the fourth stage is the industrious
schoolchild learns the rudimentary skills required to become a
productive member of society.
oIt is during this highly formative developmental period that
churches and schools deliver their most influential lessons on
how to be a good boy or girl.
The Problem of Identity
For Erikson, the early stages are but a prelude to the main act of late
adolescence and young adulthood. Emerging adulthood.
The four stages of childhood leave the person with a unique pool of
resources and handicaps, strengths and weaknesses that will be called
upon in the making of an identity.
The past determines the future but at the same time, it can be reversed.
The adolescence adult looks back upon childhood now and comes to
decide what childhood meant. We cannot literally change what happened
already but we change its meaning.
Fifth Stage (GENITAL STAGE) (IDENTITY VS. ROLE
CONFUSION Erikson)
oFor Freud, this is the last stage of development.
oPhysiological changes of puberty and the associated awakening
of overt sexual longing in the teenage years signal the end of
the libidos transformations.
oIt marks the end of childhood, closing the chapters to
autonomy, trust, initiative and industry.
oWhy do we confront the identity issue first in adolescence? The
answers can be categorized in 3 groups: BODY, COGNITION,
and SOCIETY.
oBody
As adolescents, we find ourselves unwittingly
inhabitants of new adult-like bodies.
Both frightening and wonderful.
Puberty may mark a turning point in the adolescents
perceived developmental course in the adolescents
mind. A bygone era.
oCognition
Major role in launching the identity chapter of
Eriksons generic life story.
Jean Piaget argued that in adolescence many people
enter the cognitive stage of FORMAL OPERATIONS.
This is the time in the life cycle that we are
first able to think about the world and
about ourselves in highly abstract terms.
One is able to reason about what is and
what might be in terms of verbally stated
and logically deduced hypotheses.
The 10-year old is a slave to concrete fact. (ex. name
all 50 states of America) Reality is everything.
For the adolescent, with formal operations, reality is
understood as a subset of what might be.
The serious questioning of the self (who am I?) is
catalyzed by the cognitive emergence of formal
operations.
Adolescents begin to take seriously the possibilities
of alternative lives and systems of living, motivation
them in some cases to explore new and previously
unthinkable ways of experiencing the world and to
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Faith in God served as the mighty fortress and sword and shield victorious Chapter 9 Developmental Stages and Tasks In psychological standpoint, Luther projected the devil onto others. Especially his enemies. Martin Luther was a Catholic monk when he suddenly fell raving to the ground one day and began roaring like a bull. The seed of Luthers discontent with the pope and the church were sown in the Erfurt monastery as he witnessed the enactment of corrupt He began screaming like one possessed demon. I am not! I am not this! I church policies. am nothing! I do not know who I am! When he fit in the choir, Luther was renouncing his old identity as an In psychological terms, this basic problem is called EGO IDENTITY. obedient monk, identifying the Roman church as an enemy rather than 2 fundamental questions of identity: Who am I? How do I fit into the the saviour. adult world? Luther envisioned a new image of God more directly accessible to the common person than the distant God of the catholic orthodoxy. Martin Luthers Identity Crisis Salvation was to be achieved by faith, not through good deeds. Credited with starting the massive religious and cultural movement People encounter God in the here and now through Gods son Jesus. Only termed the Protestant Reformation. need to accept Jesus and have faith that Jesus is the son of God- in order to be redeemed. Credited with bringing the sacred writings of Christianity to the common people by providing the first authoritative translation of the Bible into German. Over the course of his adult life, Luther continued to work on his Luther has been viewed as a monumental political figure in German identity. history one of the fathers of German nationalism and a hero for some He continued to change and develop with respect to his understanding of revolutionaries. who he was and how he fit into the world. One of the most provocative applications of personality theory to the life According to Erikson, during this critical period (late adolescence and course of a single adult is Erik Ericsons psychobiographical analysis of Luthers identity formation. early adult life) in the human lifespan that many of us FIRST confront the problem of identity. First analysis is how Luther tries to fit in the choir. This expresses the Eriksons concept of identity is a characteristic DEVELOPMENTAL utter terror and confusion of a young man who has come to deny the very adaptation. assumptions upon which he has built his own sense of who he is and how he fits into the adult world. In Martin Luthers individuality, we might talk about high conscientiousness and neuroticm. This symbolizes the low point of Luthers identity struggle. At the dispositional trait level, Luther was consistently hard working In the summer of 1505, Luther was following the career path sketched out by his father, Hans Luder, a capitalist. He wanted him to be a and strong-willed, subject to intense emotional mood swings, sometimes stubborn and obsessive. Oscillate between two poles of openness to lawyer. experience. One summer evening, a bolt of lightning struck the ground near him, he screamed, Help me St. Anna I want to be a monk! Erik Eriksons theory of psychosocial developmental lays out 8 stages of He prayed more than the others. He denied himself of the simplest life through individuals progress, from birth to death. earthly comforts. Luther struggled daily with the Devil, seeing him, fleeing, fighting, hating, fearing him as a real person with superhuman power. Erik Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development The Devil was the old evil foe. Erik Homburger Erikson was born of Danish parent in 1902, Germany. www.notesolution.com Protestant father abandoned the family. Jewish mother remarried. o Erikson agrees with Freud that the libido is centred in the oral zone as sucking at the mothers breast or bottle becomes the He did not look like a Jew. Erikson developed an image of self as an OUTSIDER, forced to define clearly how he was different from as well as starting point of sexual life. similar to others in his environment. o The relationship between the mother and child in this stage determines to which extent the child will experience basic An exceptional student, he abandoned his adoptive fathers hope of him TRUST or security and basic MISTRUST or insecurity. being a physician and wandered around Europe, studying art. o Sucking forms a bond that provides the infant with a sense of During this very difficult period, he experienced a crisis in identity that brought with it excessive anxiety and even occasional panic. This was trust, feeling of understanding that the world is safe. because of the inability to work with discipline and regularity. o Healthy development is a function of the balance between the two. He eventually undertook training in psychoanalysis with and was psychoanalyzed by Anna Freud. Second Stage (ANAL STAGE) (AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND In 1939, he became a naturalized American citizen and officially adopted DOUBT Erikson) the surname of Erikson, a highly symbolic event that marked the o 2 or 3 years of life, the toddlers sensual energy involve regular maturation of his own identity. cycles of tension build up and release providing sensual Developmental Stages in Childhood pleasure. o Successful toilet training signals certain degree of mastery The strongest intellectual influence on Erik Erikson was Sigmund over the sexual instinct in that the libido comes under the Freud. control of socially prescribed schedules. Freud the ultimate forces behind human behaviour and experience are unconscious sexual and aggressive drives, libido energy that he o The centerpiece of the 2 or 3 year olds psychosocial experience is the struggle to attain a certain degree of autonomy, freedom, believed was derived from sexual desires. independence, mastery of self to avoid humiliation, shame, In each stage, the libido expresses itself through a particular zone of the doubt. body, called an EROGENOUS ZONE. o Toilet training is important not so much as an expression of the libido but as an achievement of self-mastery and control. Eriksons major innovation was to take Freuds psychosexual stages of o The second chapter of life is independence, self-mastery, self- the libido and transform them into a developmental model of control and the avoidance of humiliation. psychosocial tasks. o Each stage is defined by a polarity in which a positive feature Third Stage (PHALLIC STAGE) (INITIATIVE VS. GUILT of the stage is pitted against a negative feature. Erikson) The conflict must be addressed before the individual may move to the o Between 3 to 5 years next stage. o Children becomes fascinated with their own sex organs, and become overtly curious about sexual practices among adults. First stage of Development for Freud (ORAL STAGE) (TRUST VS. o During this stage, children may begin masturbating. MISTRUST Erikson) o Libido is expressed through the mouth. o Children may unconsciously experience sexual feelings toward one parent and aggressive feeling toward another at this time. o The infant experiences sensual pleasure in sucking the o OEDIPUS COMPLEX (story of a Greek young man who mothers breast and other oral activities. unwittingly killed his father and slept with his mother. o Sucking held psychological significant of establishing a bond between the caregiver and the infant and providing a model for o Initiative and guilt is the basic psychosocial issue for the preschool boy or girl. later relationships in life. o She becomes the childs first human love object. www.notesolution.com
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