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PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes -Intelligence Quotient, Tacit Knowledge, Theory Of Multiple Intelligences

Course Code
Mark Schmuckler

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Ch 10-Psyb20
Theories of intelligence
-intelligence is multi faceted and both genetic and environmental influences contribute to a
person’s intelligence
-how important is a childs IQ in predicting its success in school and real life situations?
The factor analytic approach
-intelligence is a unitary single ability that affect everything a person does
-factor analysis: a statistical procedure that can determine which of several factors or scores,
are closely related to one another without overlapping each other’s contribution
-spearman intelligence is composed of a general (g) and a number of specific factors (s).
-g as general mental energy or ability that was involved in all cognitive tasks, and he saw s
factors as unique to particular tasks
-person with high g performed generally well on all tasks and variations in her performance on
different tasks could be attributed to the possession of varying amounts of the s factors
-people who do well on one kind of cognitive test,are likely to do well on other such tests
-children vary both in overall level of intellectual ability and in how skilled they are in specific
aspects of cognitive functioning
The information-processing approach: sternbergs triarchic theory
-understand intelligence, we must assess how individuals use info processing capabilities
-triarchic theory of intelligence: proposes 3 major components of intelligent behave: info
processing skills, experience with a given task or situation and the ability to tailor one’s
behavior to the demands of a context.
-info processing skills: require encoding, storing and retrieving varying kinds of info
-experience: how much exposure and practice and individual has had with a particular
intellectual task
Context: recognizes that intelligence cannot be separated from the situation in which it is used
-one dimension on which the intelligence of a particular behavior can be measured is its
suitability and effectiveness in a particular setting
-triarchic was extended into successful intelligence:which considers intelligence in relation to
the ability of an individual to require three abilities: analytic abilities (reasoning), creative
abilities (devising new ways of addressing issues and concerns) and practical abilities (everyday
activities, tacit knowledge common sense)- it is learned by observing others and guides
intelligent behavior
-these are used in the school curriculum and when applied in the class setting may benefit
children’s learning and also enhance their motivation to learn
Gardener’s theory of multiple intelligences
-theory of multiple intelligence: gardener proposes that human beings possess 8 kinds of
intelligence: linguistic, logical math, spatial, musical, bodily kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and
naturalist and a ninth form spiritually or existential intelligence.

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-linguistic mathematical and spatial are similar to the kinds assessed on intelligence tests, the
others are important but not really been studied
-each type of intelligence has its own developmental course in terms of perception, learning
and memory. (they are used in combination)
-critics: gardners intelligence may not all be separate entitie, some may be closely tied to others
whereas others may be distinct and his theory is somewhat circular, ex: Michael is a good
dancer? Y because of his bodily kinesthetic intelligence which defines a good dancer, so Michael
is a good dancer because he is a good dancer
-his theory however has been used to improve public education (PIFS- designed to teach the
tacit knowledge needed to succeed in school)
Testing intelligence
-intelligence quotient: an index of the way a person performs on a standardized intelligence
test relative to the way others her age perform
-we can only infer intellectual capatcity from the results of an IQ test, we can measure only
-3 primary purposes for intelligence testing: academic performance, predicting job performance
and general adjustement and health
-bayley and wescheler tests are used for detecting probs in dev and require the knowledge that
children with fewer advantages than others may not have
-we are attempting culture-fair tests which attempt to exclude or minimize the kind of
experientially or culturall biased content in IQ tests that could prejudice test taker’s responses
Measuring infant intelligence
-bayley scales of infant development, infant dev test that include non verbal test items chosen
for their ability to measure specific dev milestones
-they are for children between 1 month and 3.5 yrs and are used to assess children suspected
to be at risk for abnormal development
-they are however poor predictors of later cognitive levels because they are primarily on
sensorimotor measures
-the Fagan test measures info-processing skills, it examines infant intelligenceby measuring the
amount of time the infant spends looking at a new object compared with the time he spends
lookin at a familiar object
-study: with faces, child looks more at the novel faces than those previously presented
-this test is therefore culture fair
The Stanford-Binet test
-emphasizes verbal and performance skills
-intelligence was malleable and children’s academic performance could be improved with
special programs
-Binet and Simon tested higher mental functions such as comprehension, reasoning and
judgment as well as skills taught in school
-they built into their test age related changes in children’s learning with the aim of tapping
children’s competence at different age levels

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-mental age: which is an index of a childs actual performance level as contrasted with her true
age ex: 6year get many items correct a 7yr old would, mental age would be 7
IQ=mental age(MA)/ chronological age (CA) X 100. Average IQ is 100, mental age and
chronological are same
the Wechsler scales
-the Wechsler scales- WPPSI (primary school and preschool), WAIS (adult), WISC (children)
-these tests yield separate verbal and performance IQ scores as well as combined full scale IQ
-how children process information, focusing on memory, strategy use and processing speed-
these items less influenced by experience with school or certain cultural or economic factors
-rather than use mental age, as a basis for estimating intelligence, Wechsler created deviation
IQ , computing the averages, IQ the use standard deviation to identify the extent to which non
average scores deviate from the norm
The Kaufman assessment battery for children
-the K-ABC measure info processing skills grouped into 2 categories, sequential processing
(solving problems in a step by step fashion) and simultaneous processing (examining and
integrating a wide variety of materials in the solution of a problem)
-it also assesses the achievement in academic subjects and is culture-fair
-if a child fails early items on a subscale, the examiner teachers the child how to completed the
items before proceeding to the next
Constructing measures of intelligence
-psychometrician: makes intelligence tests, and use of tests designed to measure various
psychological constructs such as intelligence motivation, achievement,orientation and
personality characteristics
Development of norms and standards
-how is a persons intelligence compared to the others, compared to the average
-test norms: are the values that describe the typical test performace of a specific group of
-even though as people grow older, their knowledge increases, they should still be within the
norm of those the same age as them, that proves average knowledge
-we should always consider how closely the attributes and experiences of the person being
tested approximate those of the group that was used to establish the test norms
-important that we subject a test to strandardization: the process by which test constructors
ensure that testing procedures, instructions and scoring are identical on every testing occasion
Test validity and reliability
-validity: extent to which a test measures what is claims to measure
-criterion validity, is where the tests results are linked to another criteria, so the test results
must reflect grades, academic performance, prob ratings…
-reliability: degree to which a test yields consistent results over successive administration
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