Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Psychology (10,000)
PSYB32H3 (1,000)
Chapter 1, 2, 5

PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1, 2, 5: Canadian Mental Health Association, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Franz Mesmer

Course Code
Chandan Narayan
1, 2, 5

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Chapter 1 introduction: definitional and historical considerations and Canada’s etal health syste
Psychopathology: the field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behavior,
thoughts, and feelings.
What is abnormal behavior?
- Characteristics as statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or
dysfunction, and unexpectedness
1) Statistical infrequency
Normal curve: places most people in the middle as far as any characteristic is concerned
Statistical infrequency is used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation
2) Violation of norms
Consider is whether the behavior violates social norms or threatens or makes anxious
those observing it
Cultural diversity can affect how people view social norms
3) Personal suffering
Behavior is abnormal if it creates great distress and torment in the person experiencing
4) Disability or dysfunction
Impairment in some important area of life because of an abnormality
5) Unexpectedness
Distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses to
environmental stressors
- Discovery 1.1 The mental health professions
1) Clinicians: the various professionals authorized to provide psychological services, taking
different forms
Clinical psychologist: requires a Ph.D. which entails 4 to 7 years of graduate study
Psychologist is reserved for doctoral-leel registrats, hereas aster’s leel registrats
are referred to as pshologial assoiates
5 core competencies to become a registered psychologist
Interpersonal relationships
Assessment and evaluation
Intervention and consultation
Ethics and standards
Clinical psychologists learn skills in two additional areas
Techniques of assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders
Practice psychotherapy: helping troubled individuals change their thoughts,
feelings, and behaviors to reduce distress and to achieve greater life satisfaction
Psychiatrist: holds an MD degree and has had postgraduate training, called a residency
which they have received supervision in the practice of diagnosis and psychotherapy
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Engage with psychoactive drugs, chemical compounds that can influence how
people feel and think
Psychoanalyst: received specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute
Social worker: obtains an M.S.W(master of social work) degree
Programs for counselling psychologists are somewhat like graduate training in
clinical psychology but usually have less emphasis on research
History of psychopathology
- Early demonology
1) The doctrine that an evil being, such as the devil, may dwell within a person and control his
or her mind and body
2) Exorcism: the casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture
Trepanning of skulls: the making of a surgical opening in a living skull by some
- Somatogenesis
1) The notion that something wrong with the soma, or physical body, disturbs thoughts and
2) Psychogenesis: the belief that a disturbance has psychological origins
3) Hippocrates classified mental disorders into three categories
- The dark ages and demonology
1) The persecution of witches
2) Witchcraft and mental illness
- Development of asylums
1) Refuges established for the confinement and care of the mentally ill
2) Bethlehem and other early asylums
3) Moral treatment
Patients had close contact with the attendants, who talked and read to them and
encouraged them to engage in purposeful activity
- Asylums in Canada
1) The first asylum was the Hotel Dieu, established in Quebec City in 1714
2) The development of institutions for the mentally disordered in Canada can be characterized
in terms of two distinctive trends
With the advent of the asylums, provisions for the mentally ill were separate from
provisions for the physically ill, indigents, criminals
The process was segregated from the wider community
- The beginning of contemporary thought
1) An early system of classification
Wilhelm Griesinger insisted that any diagnosis of mental disorder specify a biological
Emil Kraepelin discerned among syndrome, mental disorders a tendency for a certain
group of symptoms to appear together regularly enough to be regarded as having an
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underlying physical cause, much as a medical disease and its syndrome may be
attributed to a biological dysfunction
Proposed two major groups of severe mental diseases, dementia praecox, an
early term for schizophrenia, and manic-depressive psychosis (bipolar disorder)
Postulated a chemical imbalance as the cause of schizophrenia and an
irregularity in metabolism as the explanation of manic-depressive psychosis
2) General paresis麻痹性痴呆 and syphilis 梅毒
General paresis: etal illess haraterized  paralsis ad isait that tpial led
to death within 5 years
Louis Pasteur established the germ theory of disease, which set forth the view that
disease is caused by infection of the body by minute organisms
The link had been established between infection, destruction of certain areas of the
brain, and a form of psychopathology
3) Psychogenesis
Franz Anton Mesmer believed that hysterical disorder was caused by a distribution of a
universal magnetic fluid in the body
Jean Martin Charcot initially believed that hysteria was a neurological disorder for which
patients were pre-disposed by hereditary features of their nervous system, but near the
end of his life he concluded that hysteria was a psychological disease.
Josef Breuer discovered the cathartic method, which is an experience of reliving an
earlier emotional catastrophe and releasing the emotional tension caused by
suppressed thoughts about the event was called catharsis
- Current attitudes toward people with psychological disorders
1) The public perception
Hincks who suffered from serious chronic psychological problems was a founder of the
Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA), proved that people with psychological
disease can still contribute to the society
2) Anti-stigma campaigns
Self-stigma(自我歧视): the tendency to internalize mental health stigma and see
oneself in more negative terms because of experiencing a psychological problem
- Mental health literacy: refer to the accurate knowledge that a person develops about mental
illness and its causes and treatment
Mental health problems and their treatment in Canada
- The extent of mental health problems in Canada
1) Canada as a whole
2) Regional differences
- Cost of mental health problems
1) The five disorders with the highest amount of burden were depression, bipolar disorder,
alcohol use disorders, social phobia, and schizophrenia
- Trasforatios i Caada’s etal health sste
1) The Romanow report
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