Case study: billy did the beck depression inventory ii where he got a score of 35 which is greater the cut off for severe depression. Mood disorders: disabling disturbances in emotions from the sadness of depression to the elation and irritability of mania. Associated with panic attacks, substance abuse, sexual dysfunction and personality disorders. Other disorders can increase severity and result in poorer prognosis. Depression: emotional state marked by great sadness and feelings of worthlessness and guilt. Children characterize it as somatic complaints such as headaches and stomach aches. Adults would complain of distraction and memory loss. Only 15% are psychologizers: emphasize psychological aspects of depression. Mania: emotional state/mood of intense but unfounded elation with irritability, hyperactivity, talkativeness, flight of ideas, distractibility, and impractical, grandiose plans. People are loud and shift rapidly from topic to topic. Major depressive disorder (mdd): presence of 5 of the following symptoms for at least 2 weeks.