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Chapter 2

PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Eclecticism In Art, Twin, Shyness


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis
Chapter
2

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Ab Pysch Lecture 2: Chapter 2
Current Paradigms and Integrative Approaches
The Role of Paradigms
oParadigm
The conceptual framework or approach within which the scientist
works
Basic assumptions that outline the particular universe of scientific
inquiry
Indicates the rules to be followed
The Biological Paradigm
oContinuation of somatogenetic hypothesis
Medical model/disease model
oContemporary Approaches to the Biological Paradigm
Behaviour genetics
Study of individual differences in behavior that are
attributable in part to differences in genetic makeup
Genotype/phenotype
oGenotype is fixed at birth but is not static
oPhenotype changes over time
Study of behavior genetic relies on 4 basic methods
oComparison of members of family
oComparison of twins
oInvestigation of adoptees
oLinkage analysis
Family method
oAverage number of genes shared by two blood
relatives is known
50% identical to parents
first degree relatives
Nephews, nieces = 25%
Second-degree relatives
oIndex cases/probands
Starting point of sample
Twin method
oMonozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal)
twins are compared
oConcordance for disorder should be greater in MZ
than DZ
oMZ are not always identical
Equal Environment Assumption

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oEnvironmental factors that are partial causes of
concordance are equally influential for MZ and DZ
pairs
oEquivalent number of stressful life experiences
Adoptees Method
Molecular Genetics
oLinkage analysis
Method in molecular genetics used to study
people
Blood samples
oGenetic markers
oGene-environment interaction
Disorder or related symptoms are joint
product of genetic vulnerability and specific
environmental experiences or conditions
Genetic Differences Reflected in Temperament
Temperament
oConstitutionally based differences in reactivity and
self-regulation
Three types of categories
oResilient type
Cope well with adversity
Adaptive, high functioning
oOvercontrolling type
Overly inhibited and prone to distress
Shyness, loneliness
oUndercontrolling type
Impulsive and out of control
Aggressive
Delinquency
oBiological Approaches to Treatment
Drugs
Tranquilizers
oAnxiety disorders
oStimulate GABA
Antidepressants
oInhibits reuptake of serotonin
Antipsychotics
oSchizo
oReduce activity of neurons that use dopamine as
neurotrans by blocking
Stimulants
oADHD

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Deep brain stimulation
Planting battery-operated electrodes in brain to deliver low-
level electrical impulses
oEvaluating Biological Paradigm
Reductionism
Whatever is being studied can and should be reduced to its
most basic elements or constituents
But the whole is often greater than the sum of its parts
Psychological problems need to be understood at multiple
levels
Cognitive-Behavioural Paradigm
oThe Behavioural Perspective
Views abnormal behavior as responses learned in the same ways as
other human behaviors are learned
oRise of Behaviourism
John B Watson
Formed as response to the focus on introspection
oThinking to learning
Behaviourism
oApproach that focuses on observable behavior
rather than on consciousness
Classical conditioning
Pavlov
Operant Conditioning
Skinner
oReformulated law of effect
Shifted focus from linking of stimuli and
response to relationships between responses
and their consequences or contingencies
oIntroduced concept of discrminitive stimulus
External events that in effect tell an
organism that if it performs a certain
behvaiour, a certain consequence will follow
oPositive (adds pleasant) and negative (removes bad)
reinforcement
Modelling (vicarious learning)
Learning by watching or imitating others
oBehavioural Therapy
In its initial form,
Applied procedures based on classical and operant
condition to alter clinical problems
Behaviour modification
Counterconditioning and exposure
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