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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 covered in week 6 of FALL 2010 semester

Course Code
Konstantine Zakzanis

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-ppl w/anxiety disorders feel an overwhelming apprehension that seems unwarranted. DSM-IV-
TR lists 6 principal diagnoses: phobic disorders, panic disorder, GAD, OCD, PTSD, and acute
stress disorder.
-Phobias are intense, unreasonable fears that disrupt the life of an otherwise normal person.
They are re common. Social phobia is fear of social situations in which the person may be
scrutinized by other ppl. Sp phobias are fears of animals, situations, the natural environ, and
blood and injections. The psychoanalytic view of phobias is that they are defence against
repressed conflicts. Behavioural theorists have several ideas of how phobias are acquire: through
classical conditions, the pairing of an innocuous object or situation w/an innately painful event;
through operant conditioning, whereby a person is rewarded for avoidance; through modelling,
imitation the fear and avoidance of others; and through cognition, by making a catastrophe of a
social mishap that could be construed in a less ve fashion But not all ppl who have such
experiences develop a phobia. It may be that a genetically transmitted physiological diathesis
lability of the ANS predisposes certain ppl to acquire phobias.
-A patient w/panic disorder has sudden, inexplicable, and periodic attacks of intense anxiety.
Panic attacks sometimes lead to fear and avoidance of being outside ones home, a condition
known as agoraphobia. A no. of laboratory manipulations (e.g., having the patient
hyperventilate or breathe air w/a high concentration of CO2) can induce panic attacks in those
w/the disorder. Panic disorder patients ruminate about serious illnesses, both physical and
mental; they fear their own physical sensations and them amplify them until they are
-In GAD, sometimes called free-floating anxiety, the indivs life is beset w/virtually constant
tension, apprehension, and worry. Psychoanalytic theory regards the sources as an unconscious
conflict btwn the ego and id impulses. Some behavioural theorists assume that w/adequate
assessment, this pervasive anxiety can be pinned down to a finite set of anxiety-provoking
circumstances, thereby likening it to a phobia and making it more treatable. A sense of
helplessness can also cause ppl to be anxious in a wide range of situation. Biological approaches
focus on the therapeutic effects of the benzodiazepines and how they might enhance the activity
of the neurotransmitter GABA
-ppl w/OCD have intrusive, unwanted thoughts and feel pressured to engage in stereotyped
rituals lest they be overcome by frightening levels of anxiety. The disorder can become disabling,
interfering not only w/the life of the person who experiences the difficulties but also w/the lives of
those close to that person. Psychoanalytic theory posits strong id impulses that are under faulty
and inadequate ego control. In behavioural accounts, compulsions are considered learned
avoidance responses. Obsessions may be related to stress and an attempt to inhibit these
unwanted thoughts
-PTSD is diagnosed in some ppl who have experienced a traumatic event that would evoke
extreme distress i most indivs. It is marked by symptoms such as re-experiencing the trauma,
increased arousal, and emotional numbing.
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