PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Sigmund Freud, Reductionism, Twin

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Published on 21 Aug 2012
Chapter 2
Paradigms conceptual framework or approach within which the scientist works
- Biological
o Mental disorders are caused by biological processes. Medical model or
disease model
o Heredity can play a role
o Behaviour genetics genotype and phenotype
Genotype unobservable genetic constitution
Phenotype observable. Result of interaction of genotype with
o Monozygotic and dizygotic studies
o Dopamine may be associated to schizophrenia
o Treatment through balancing of chemicals
o Reductionism whatever is being studied can and should be reduced
to its most basic elements or constituents
- cognitive-behavioural
o view abnormal behaviour as responses learned in the same ways
other human beaviour is learned
o behaviourism an approach that focuses on observable behaviour
rather than on consciousness
o OPERANT CONDITIONING modifying behaviour that operates on the
o Behaviour modification
o Rational-emotive behaviour therapy aim is to eliminate self-
defeating beliefs through a rational examination of them
o Cognitive behaviour therapy manipulating thoughts to make it
something else
o Meichenbaum’s cognitive-behaviour modification self-instructional
training and stress-inoculation
- Psychoanalytic
o Developed by Sigmund freud
o Unconscious conflicts in the individual
o Classical psychoanalytic theory original views of Freud
Id pleasure principle, primary process thinking
Ego reality principle, secondary thinking
Superego conscience of the person
o Modifications in psychoanalytic therapy
Ego analysis place greater emphasis on a person’s ability to
control the environment and to select the time and the means
for satisfying instinctual drives, condenting that the individual
is as much ego as id.
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