PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Reinforcement, Nicotine, Jaywalking

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Chapter 9: Motivation
Defining Motivation
Traditional Views:
Process that initiates, directs and maintains physical and psychological activities
2 parts:
o 1. Drives unconditioned & biologically based (hunger)
o 2. Motives partly learned & psychologically/ socially based (Desire for money)
Broad Motives:
Achievement motive desire to succeed and make significant/ valuable accomplishments
Don’t have a clear understanding of how traits and motives develop
Psychologists believe achievement motives are learned
More kids experience pride in accomplishments & shame in failure, stronger achievement
motive will be
Desire and Readiness to Change:
Ppl who want to improve their behaviour are more likely to participate successfully in
interventions
Desire to change = motive (impt in therapy esp self management)
o Assessed by scale of motivation to change behv
Stages of change model descbs 5 stages through which ppl’s motivation progress in readiness to
change.
Lowest stage= no interest & highest= completed change & working to maintain (intermediate
stage= preparationmade commitment to modify behv)
A behaviour Analytic View:
Behv analytic view more useful focuses on ways to manipulate motivation as an antecedent
o Want to engance motivation in interventions
Current approach began with a article by Jack Michael
o Included establishing operations defined as environmental manipulations that alter the
effect of a stimulus as a reinforcer and increases the freq of all responses that have
been reinforced with that stimulus in the past (ex: water)
Motivating Operations:
Motivating Operations (MOs) temporarily alter the effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher on
behv AND performance of behvs thatnormally lead to those conseqs
Changing the effectiveness of a conseq value-altering effect
Changing performance of behaviours normally lead to those conseqs behv-altering effect
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Document Summary

Process that initiates, directs and maintains physical and psychological activities. Drives unconditioned & biologically based (hunger: 2. Motives partly learned & psychologically/ socially based (desire for money) Achievement motive desire to succeed and make significant/ valuable accomplishments. Don"t have a clear understanding of how traits and motives develop. More kids experience pride in accomplishments & shame in failure, stronger achievement motive will be. Ppl who want to improve their behaviour are more likely to participate successfully in interventions. Desire to change = motive (impt in therapy esp self management: assessed by scale of motivation to change behv. Stages of change model descbs 5 stages through which ppl"s motivation progress in readiness to change. Lowest stage= no interest & highest= completed change & working to maintain (intermediate stage= preparation made commitment to modify behv) Behv analytic view more useful focuses on ways to manipulate motivation as an antecedent: want to engance motivation in interventions.

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