Textbook Notes (270,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Psychology (10,000)
PSYB45H3 (1,000)
Chapter 7

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Chopsticks, Multiple Sclerosis, Starting Pistol

Course Code
Jessica Dere

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 4 pages of the document.
Chapter 7: Getting a New Behavior to Occur with Shaping
Iproig Frak’s Eerisig (pg 63)
Shaping Procedure
1. Specify the final target behavior
2. Identify a response that could be used as a starting point in working toward the
final target behavior
3. Reinforce the starting behavior; then reinforce closer and closer approx. until
eventually the final target behavior occurs
Shaping: the development of a new operant behavior by the reinforcement of
successive approximation of that behavior and the extinction of earlier approximation of
that behavior until the new behavior occurs. AKA methods of a successive
shaping can be used to establish a behavior that the individual never performs
The behavior modifier begins by reinforcing a response that occurs with a frequency
greater than zero and that at least remotely resembles the final target behavior
Sometimes a new behavior develops when an individual performs some initial behavior
and the environment then reinforces slight variations in that behavior across a number
of trials. Eventually, that initial behavior may be shaped so that the final form no longer
resembles it
o For example: most parents use shaping in teaching their children to talk. An
infant first beginning to babble makes some sounds that remotely approximate
ords i the parets’ atie laguage. Whe this happes, the parets usuall
reinforce the behavior with hugs, caresses, kisses, and smiles. The sounds
 ad daa tpiall reeie eeptioall large doses of reiforcement
from English-speakig parets. Eetuall a-a ad da-da our ad are
strogl reifored, ad the ore priitie  ad daa are sujeted to
operant extinction. At a later stage, reinforcement is given after the child says
o ad dadd, ad a-a ad da-da are etinguished
Five aspects of behavior that can be shaped
1. Topography (form): spatial configuration or form of a particular response (i.e.,
specific movements involved); Physical movements involved in the behavior
For example: printing a word and writing the same word are examples of
the same response made with two different topographies
Topography shaping occurs, for example, when teaching a child to switch
from a printing response to a writing response, teaching a child to say,
Mo istead of Maa, learig to ie skate ith loger ad
longer strides rather than short choppy steps, and learning the proper
finger movements for eating with chopsticks (pg 65)
2. Frequency: Is the number of instances that occur in a given period of time
For example: frequency shaping include increasing the number of steps
(the distance) that Frank walked in his exercise program and increasing
the number of repetitions that a golfer practices a particular golf shot.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version