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Chapter 25

PSYB45H3 Chapter 25: Chapter 25

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Jessica Dere

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Chapter 25: Token Economies Tokens: Conditioned reinforcers that can be accumulated and exchanged for goods and services Token Economy: A behavioral program in which individuals can earn tokens for a variety of desirable behaviors and can exchange the earned tokens for backup reinforcer o Our modern society is a complex token economy Token Economies: Token systems with groups Using token reinforcers has two major advantages 1. They can be given immediately after a desirable behavior occurs and cashed in at a later time for a backup reinforcer 2. Tokens that are paired with many specific motivating operations for their strength Techniques used is token economies have been used for both mentalpsychological healthtreatment an in community settings Steps on Setting Up and Managing a Token Economy Decide on the target behaviors o They are determined largely by: The type of individual involved The short and long range objectives to be accomplished Specific behavioral problems that interfere with achieving those objectives Take baselines and keep data o Baseline data on the specific target behavior should be obtained behavior initiating a token economy o After the program has been started, continuing to collect data on the target behavior and comparing the data with the baseline data will enable you to determine the program effectiveness Select the type of tokens to use o Tokens can include play money, marks on a wall chart, poker chips, stickers or stamps, or numerous other possibilities that will suit the needs of your particular token economy o Ensure that you have an adequate number of tokens o You should also acquire the necessary accessories for handling and storing tokens Select backup reinforcers o A token system increases the variety of practical reinforcers that you can use because theyre not limited to those that can be delivered immediately following a desired response o When considering reinforcers that are normally available, take extreme caution to avoid serious ethical problems o Use of tokens provide the possibility of using fines as punishers for inappropriate behavior
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