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Chapter 4

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Alarm Clock, Classical Conditioning, Reinforcement


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Chapter
4

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Chapt e r 4
Reinf or c e m e n t
Chapt e r Outlin e
Defining Reinforce m e n t
Positive and Negative Reinforce m e n t
Social versu s Auto m a tic Reinforce m e n t
Escap e and Avoid an c e Behaviors
Condition ed and Uncon ditio n e d Reinforcers
Factors Influencin g the Effectiven e s s of Reinforce m e n t
Imm e di a cy
Conting e n c y
Motivating Operation s
Individual Differenc e s
Magnitu d e of the Reinforcer
Sche dul e s of Reinforce m e n t
Fixed Ratio
Variable Ratio
Fixed Interv al
Variable Interval
Reinforcin g Differen t Dimen sion s of Behavior
Concurr e nt Sche dul e s of Reinforce m e n t
Chapt e r Sum m a r y
Key Terms
Practice Test
Appendix A
Appendix B
Chapt e r 4, Quiz 1
Chapt e r 4, Quiz 2
Chapt e r 4, Quiz 3
Ide a s for Clas s Activi ti e s
1. Provide everyd a y exa m p l e s of beh avior and cons e q u e nc e s that illustra t e positive
reinforce m e n t , ne g ativ e reinforce m e n t, or neith e r and hav e stud e n t s identify the ex a m pl e s
as positive reinforce m e n t , neg a tiv e reinforce m e n t , or neithe r. Have the m ex plain the
justification for their answ e r. Alternativ ely, ask stud en t s to provide novel, ever yd a y
exa m pl e s of positive and nega tive reinforc e m e n t
2. Provide everyd a y ex a m pl e s of different sche d ul e s of reinforce m e n t (for exa m pl e, piece
rate pay as an exa m pl e of a FR sche d u l e, telem a r k e ti n g calls as an exa m pl e of a VR
sche d ul e, checkin g for the upda t e on scor e s that are pres e nt e d on the scree n ev ery 10
minu t e s during footb all ga m e s on televisio n as an exa m pl e of a FI sche d ul e, and chec king
e- mail for mes s a g e s as an ex a m pl e of a VI sche dul e), have stud e n ts identify the sch e d u l e
of reinforce m e n t in the exa m pl e s , and justify their answ ers. Alterna tiv ely, hav e stud en t s
provide novel, everyd a y exa m pl e s of eac h sch ed ul e of reinforce m e n t .
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Ans w e r s to Prac tic e Tes t Que s t i o n s
1. Reinforce m e n t is defin e d as a proce s s in which a beh a vior is stren g t h e n e d by the
imm edi a t e cons eq u e n c e that reliably follows its occurre n c e.
2. The reinforc e r provide d to Thorndikes cat was food. The be h avi or that resulte d in the
reinforcer was hitting the lever which ope n e d the door. The result of the reinforce m e n t was
that the cats beh avior was stren g th e n e d . Each time Thorndike put the hungry cat inside
the cage it took less time for the cat to hit the lever that ope n e d the door.
3. To say the a beh avior is str en gt h e n e d mea n s that the be h avior is mor e likely to occur
again in the futur e or that it will incre a s e in frequ e n c y, dura tion, intensit y, or spe ed in the
future.
4. A beh avior tha t is stren gt h e n e d throu g h the proce s s of reinforc e m e n t is called an
oper a n t beh a vior. An oper an t beh a vior acts on the environ m e n t to produ c e a cons eq u e n c e
and in turn is controlled by, or occurs as a result of, its imm e di at e cons eq u e n c e . In
Skinners experi m e n t s, the rats beh avior of pres sin g a lever in the experi m e n t al cha m b e r
was reinforce d with food.
5. See Figure 4.2 for an ex a m pl e of a grap h which shows the effect of reinforc e m e n t .
6. Positive reinforc e m e n t is whe n (a) the occurre nc e of a beh avior (b) is followed by the
addition of a stimulus or an incre as e in the inte n sit y of a stimul us (c) which results in the
stren g t h e ni n g of the be h avior.
7. Negative reinforce m e n t is when (a) the occurre nc e of a beh avior (b) is followed by the
remo v al of a stimulus or a decre a s e in the intensit y of a stimulus (c) which result s in the
stren g t h e ni n g of the be h avior.
8. Kevins beh avi or of giving his girlfriend a complim e nt was positively reinforce d with a
kiss, and ther efor e, Kevin was more likely to com plim e n t his girlfrien d in the future.
9. Bonnies beh avior of reac hin g over and turnin g off her alarm clock was nega tiv ely
reinforce d by the rem ov al of the aversive buzzin g, thus stren gt h e ni n g her beh avior of
turning off the clock when it buzzes.
10. Positiv e and nega tiv e reinforce m e n t are alike in that both result in the beh avi or bein g
mor e likely to occur in the futur e. The differe nc e betwe e n the two is that in positive
reinforce m e n t , a resp o ns e produ c e s a stimulus (a positive reinforcer) and in nega tiv e
reinforce m e n t , a resp o ns e rem o ve s or prev e n t s the occurr e n c e of a stimulus (an av ersive
stim ul u s ).
11. Negative reinforce m e n t increa s e s or stren g t h e n s a beh a vior. Punish m e n t decr e a s e s or
weake ns a beh a vi or.
12. In nega tiv e reinforc e m e n t , the stimulus tha t is remo v e d or avoide d following the
beh a vior is called an aver siv e stimulus. The buzz er on the alarm clock is an aver siv e
stim ul u s that is remo v e d when you turn off the alarm clock.
13. An unco n dition e d reinforcer (also called a prim ar y reinforc er) is a reinforce r that
requires no training or conditioning to dev elop as a reinforc e r. Exa m pl e s of unco ndi tio n e d
positiv e reinforcer s are food, water, and sexu al stimulation. Exam ple s of unco n di tion e d
nega tiv e reinforc e r s are pain, cold, hea t, or oth er disco mfortin g or av ersiv e stimul a tio n.
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14. A condition e d reinforcer (also called a seco nd a ry reinforcer) is a stimulus that was
once neu t r al but bec a m e est a blish e d as a reinforcer by being paired with an uncon dition e d
reinforcer or an alre ad y est a blish ed conditio n e d reinforce r. For exa m pl e, a pare n ts
atten tion is a con ditione d reinforcer beca u s e it has been pair e d with the delivery of food,
warm t h, and othe r reinforcers. Money is a conditione d reinforcer beca u s e it has been
paired with a wide variet y of uncon ditio n e d and condition e d reinforcers.
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