PSYB45 Chapter 15-26: PSYB45 Final Exam Review

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PSYB45 – Final Exam Review
Chap 15 – Respondent & Operant Conditioning Together
Respondent Conditioning: Feelings
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These reflexes are controlled by the part of our nervous system referred to as the autonomic nervous system
In fear, the adrenal glands secrete adrenaline into the bloodstream, which physically arouses and mobilizes
the body for action. The heart rate increases dramatically (circulatory system). At the same time, you
breathe more rapidly (respiratory system), providing an increased supply of oxygen to the blood. This
oxygen surges through your body with the increased heart rate, supplying more oxygen to your muscles.
You may begin to sweat, which acts as a cooling mechanism in preparation for increased energy output of
the body. At the same time that these changes are occurring, you may get a queasy feeling in your stomach
(digestive system)
Causes of Emotions
Presentation and withdrawal of reinforcers and presentation and withdrawal of aversive stimuli produce
four major emotions
The presentation of aversive stimuli produces the emotion called anxiety
Withdrawal of aversive stimuli produces an emotion called relief
Our emotions have three important components
oThe autonomic reaction that you feel during the experience of an emotion (typically accompanied
by visible signs, such as frowns), which is influenced by respondent conditioning
oThe way that you learn to express an emotion overtly (such as shouting), which is influenced by
operant conditioning
oThe way that you become aware of and describe your emotions
Chap 16 – Transferring Behaviour to New Settings & Making It Last: Generality of Behavioural Change
A behavior change is said to have generality to the extent that the following occur:
a) Stimulus generalization: the trained behavior transfers from the training situation(s) to the target
situation(s) (which is usually the natural environment)
b) Response generalization: training leads to the dvlpt of new behavior that has not been specifically trained
c) Behavior maintenance: the trained behavior persists in the target situation(s) over time
Programming Generality of Operant Behaviour
Stimulus generalization refers to the procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of a stimulus or
situation, and the effect of the response becoming more probable in the presence of another stimulus or
situation
oTrain in the target situation: Make the final stages of the training situation similar to the target
situation
oVary the training conditions
oProgram common stimuli: Bring the desired behavior under the control of instructions or rules that
an individual can rehearse in novel situations
Reinforcing self-mediated verbal-stimuli can be successful, using correspondence
training in which the children were taught to do what they said they were going to do
oTrain sufficient stimulus exemplars, if a child is taught to say dog when viewing several exemplars
of the dogs, then the child is likely to generalize & refer to any variety of dog as a dog
General case programming: the teacher begins by identifying the range of relevant
stimulus situations to which the learner
Programming Operant Response Generalization
Response generalization: Procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of a stimulus or situation &
the effect of another response becoming more probable in the presence of that or similar stimuli or
situations
oEx. The employees in a restaurant were shown a poster for performing cleaning and restocking
tasks in the dining and kitchen areas, and when they performed those tasks they were reinforced
by seeing check marks by their names on a performance feedback chart. This resulted in a
substantial increase in the targeted behaviors
oResponse generalization occurs for several reasons:
a) The more unlearned response generalization will occur between them
b) Learned response generalization can occur if widely different responses share a common
characteristic
c) An individual might show response generalization b/c he or she has learned functionally
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equivalent responses to a stimulus (responses that produce the same consequences)
Train sufficient response exemplars: Strategy for programming response generalization is similar to that of
training sufficient stimulus exemplars to establish stimulus generalization
Vary the acceptable responses during training
Capitalize on behavioural momentum: Theory of behavioral momentum states that once a behavior is
initiated in the presence of a specific stimulus and is occurring at a high rate in the presence of that
stimulus, that behavior and similar behaviors will tend to occur at a high rate in the presence of that
stimulus unless some disrupting influence (a distracting stimulus, the onset of extinction) occurs
oEx. Overcoming noncompliance with children. To increase the probability that a child will follow
instructions that he normally does not follow, it is often effective to start by repeatedly giving
instructions that the child is likely to follow and to reinforce compliance with those instructions
Programming Operant Behaviour Maintenance
Use Behavioral Trapping: Allow Natural Contingencies of Reinforcement to Take Effect: A behavioral trap
is a contingency in which a behavior that has been developed by programmed reinforcers is “trapped” or
maintained by natural reinforcers
oThis approach requires the behavior modifier to realistically identify contingencies in the natural
environment and then to tailor the target behavior so that it will be trapped by those contingencies
Ex. After speech has been established in a training situation, it may continue unabated in
the natural environment b/c of the natural contingencies of reinforcement for it there.
Playing w/ other children is a behavior that might gradually be shaped in a shy child,
once it’s established, the behavior modifier probably will not have to worry about
reinforcing
Change the behavior of people in the natural environment: It involves actually changing the behavior of
people in the target situation so that they will maintain a learner’s behavior that has generalized from the
training situation.
Use intermittent schedules of reinforcement in the target situation: After a behavior has generalized to a
target situation, it may be desirable to reinforce the behavior deliberately in the target situation on an
intermittent schedule for at least a few reinforced trials. The intermittent schedule should make that
behavior more persistent in the target situation and thereby increase the probability of the behavior lasting
until it can come under the control of natural reinforcers
Give the control to the individual
Programming Generality of Respondent Behaviour
In respondent conditioning, by being paired w/ another stimulus a neutral stimulus comes to elicit the
response of that stimulus. In this way, a conditioned reflex is established in which the former neutral
stimulus becomes a CS elicits the same response as the stimulus it was paired with. However, not only does
the CS elicit the response; stimuli that are similar to the CS also elicit the response
Guidelines for Programming Generality of Operant Behaviour
1. Choose target behaviors that are clearly useful to the learner b/c these are the behaviors that are most likely
to be reinforced in the natural environment
2. Teach the target behavior in a situation that is as similar as possible to the environment in which you want
the behavior to occur
3. Vary the training conditions to maximally sample relevant stimulus dimensions for transfer to other
situations and to reinforce various forms of the desirable behavior
4. Establish the target behavior successively in as many situations as is feasible, starting with the easiest and
progressing to the most difficult
5. Program common stimuli (such as rules) that might facilitate transfer to novel environments
6. Vary the acceptable responses in the training settings
7. Gradually reduce the frequency of reinforcement in the training situation until it is less than that occurring
in the natural environment
8. When changing to a new situation, increase the frequency of reinforcement in that situation to offset the
tendency of the learner to discriminate the new situation from the training situation
9. Ensure sufficient reinforcement for maintaining the target behavior in the natural environment
Chap 17 – Antecedent Control: Rules & Goals
Rule: Describes a situation in which a behavior will lead to a consequence. Speaking loosely, it is a
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