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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Notes

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 6: Punishment
Defining Punishment
Definition of punishment:
o1. A particular behavior occurs.
o2. A consequence immediately follows the behavior.
o3. As a aresult, the behavior is less likely to occur again in the future. (The behavior is
weakened)
A punisher (also called an aversive stimulus) is a consequence that makes a particular behavior
less likely to occur in the future. For Kathy, the dog bite was a punisher for her behavior of
reaching over the fencer.
A punisher is defined by its effect on the behavior it follows.
You cannot define punishment by whether the consequence appears unfavorable or aversive. You
can conclude that a particular consequence is punishing only if the behavior decreases in the
future.
A Common Misconception about Punishment
When behavior analysts speak of punishment, they are referring to a process in which the
consequence of a behavior results in a future decrease in the occurrence of that behavior.
Many people define punishment as something meted out to a person who has committed a crime
or other inappropriate behavior. It involves not only the hope that the behavior will cease, but
also elements of retribution or retaliation; part of the intent is to hurt the person who has
committed the crime.
Positive and Negative Punishment
Positive Punishment:
o1. The occurrence of a behavior
o2. is followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus,
o3. and as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur in the future.
For example, decreasing self injurious behavior by using punishment. A subject slapped
herself in the face, each time she did so, the researches immediately applied a brief electric shock
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with a handheld shock device. This is a positive punishment because the painful stimulus was
presented each time.
One other form of positive punishment is based on the Premack principle, which states
that when a person is made to engage in a low-probability (less preferred) behavior contingent on
a high-probability (more preferred) behavior, the high probability behavior will decrease in
frequency.
Punishment results in an immediate decrease in the target behavior. Although extinction
also decreases a behavior, it usually takes longer for the behavior to decrease, and an extinction
burst often occurs before the behavior decreases. With punishment, there is no extinction burst.
Negative Punishment:
o1. The occurrence of a behavior
o2. is followed by the removal of a reinforcing stimulus,
o3. And as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur in the future
These definitions parallel the definitions of positive and negative reinforcement.
The critical difference is that reinforcement strengthens a behavior or makes it more
likely to occur in the future, whereas punishment weakens a behavior or makes it less likely to
occur in the future.
Two examples of negative punishment are:
Time-out from positive reinforcement
oIn time-out, the person is removed from a reinforcing situation
for a brief period after the problem behavior occurs.
Response cost
oResearchers used this to decrease late arrivals for supper. When
the youths arrived late, they lost of the points they had earned.
Other names for positive punishment
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Description
Chapter 6: Punishment Defining Punishment Definition of punishment: o 1. A particular behavior occurs. o 2. A consequence immediately follows the behavior. o 3. As a aresult, the behavior is less likely to occur again in the future. (The behavior is weakened) A punisher (also called an aversive stimulus) is a consequence that makes a particular behavior less likely to occur in the future. For Kathy, the dog bite was a punisher for her behavior of reaching over the fencer. A punisher is defined by its effect on the behavior it follows. You cannot define punishment by whether the consequence appears unfavorable or aversive. You can conclude that a particular consequence is punishing only if the behavior decreases in the future. A Common Misconception about Punishment When behavior analysts speak of punishment, they are referring to a process in which the consequence of a behavior results in a future decrease in the occurrence of that behavior. Many people define punishment as something meted out to a person who has committed a crime or other inappropriate behavior. It involves not only the hope that the behavior will cease, but also elements of retribution or retaliation; part of the intent is to hurt the person who has committed the crime. Positive and Negative Punishment Positive Punishment: o 1. The occurrence of a behavior o 2. is followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus, o 3. and as a result, the behavior is less likely to occur in the future. For example, decreasing self injurious behavior by using punishment. A subject slapped herself in the face, each time she did so, the researches immediately applied a brief electric shock www.notesolution.com
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