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Chapter 9

Chapter 9

1 Page
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 8: Respondent Conditioning
Respondent Conditioning
oOperant behaviours controlled by their consequences
oOperant conditioning- manipulation of consequences
Respondent behaviours controlled (elated) by antecedent stimuli
oRespondent conditioning- manipulation of antecedent stimuli
Unconditioned responses (URs)- elicited by antecedent stimuli even though no conditioning/
learning occurred
oOccurs in all healthy people when unconditioned stimulus (US) present
Trace conditioning: neutral stimulus (NS) precedes US, but NS ends before US is presented
Delay condition: NS presented and then US presented before NS ends
Simultaneous condition: NS and US presented at same time
Backward conditioning: US presented before NS
oLess likely to be effective
Higher-order conditioning: when NS paired with already established CS and NS becomes CS
oDepends on how well established CS is when paired with NS
Conditioned emotional responses (CERs)
Spontaneous recovery- when CS elicits CR after extinction has taken place
oCR disappear if US is not presented with CS during spontaneous recover
Discrimination in respondent conditioning is situation in which CR is elicited by single CS or
narrow range of CSs
Strength or respondent depends on variety of factors:
oNature of US and CS
oTemporal relationship between CS and US
oContingency between CS and US
oNumber of pairings
oPrevious exposure to CS
Salient- a more intense stimulus also functions move effectively as CS
For conditioning to be most effective, CS should precede US
oDelay conditioning and operant conditioning are most effective
Respondent conditioning and operant conditioning are distinct processes and that respondent and
operant behaviours include different types of responses
Respondent behaviours are bodily responses that have a biological basis
Operant behaviour is controlled by its consequences
Respondent conditioning occurs when NS acquires power to elicit CR because NS has been paired
with US
Operant conditioning occurs when specific response in particular stimulus situation followed
reliably by reinforcing consequence
Respondent extinction occurs when CS when CS is no longer paired with US
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Description
Chapter 8: Respondent Conditioning Respondent Conditioning o Operant behaviours controlled by their consequences o Operant conditioning- manipulation of consequences Respondent behaviours controlled (elated) by antecedent stimuli o Respondent conditioning- manipulation of antecedent stimuli Unconditioned responses (URs)- elicited by antecedent stimuli even though no conditioning learning occurred o Occurs in all healthy people when unconditioned stimulus (US) present Trace conditioning: neutral stimulus (NS) precedes US, but NS ends before US is presented Delay condition: NS presented and then US presented before NS ends Simultaneous condition: NS and US presented at same time Backward conditioning: US presented before NS o Less likely to be effective Higher-order conditioning: when NS paired with already established CS and NS becomes CS o Depends on how well established CS is when paired with NS Conditioned emotional responses (CERs) Spontaneous recovery- when CS elicits CR after extinction has taken place o CR disappear if US is not presented with CS during spontaneous recover Discrimination in respondent
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