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Chapter 18

Chapter 18

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 18
Positive Punishment Procedures and the Ethics of Punishment
Application of Aversive Activities
An aversive activity is a low-probability behavior the person typically
would not choose to engage in
A problem behavior is decreased by the contingent application of
aversive activities
Contingent on the problem behavior, the person is made to engage in
the aversive activity
This form of positive punishment is based on the Premack principle,
which states that when the requirement to engage in a low-probability
behavior (the aversive activity) is made contingent on the occurrence of
a high-probability behavior (the problem behavior), the high-
probability behavior will decrease in the future
Although an aversive stimulus is an environmental event that can be a
punisher, an aversive activity is a behavior that can be a punisher for
another behavior
A person will try to avoid or escape from performing the aversive
activity therefore, the change agent often has to use physical
guidance to get the person to engage in the aversive activity contingent
on the problem behavior
When applying an aversive activity as a positive punisher, the change
agent instructs the client to engage in the aversive activity
immediately contingent on the problem behavior
Types of Positive Punishment Procedures that Use Aversive Activity
Overcorrection
oDeveloped to decrease aggressive and disruptive behaviors
exhibited by people with mental retardation in institutional
settings
oThe client is required to engage in an effortful behavior for an
extended period contingent on each instance of the problem
behavior
oTwo forms:
Positive Practice
The client has to engage in correct forms of
relevant behavior contingent on an instance of the
problem behavior
The client engages in the correct behavior, with
physical guidance if necessary, for an extended
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period or until the correct behavior has been
repeated a number of times
This is said to be an overcorrection procedure
because the client has to engage in the correct
behavior many times in positive practice
Restitution
A procedure in which, contingent on each instance
of the problem behavior, the client must correct the
environmental effects of the problem behavior and
restore the environment to a condition better than
that which existed before the problem behavior
Physical guidance is used as needed to get the
client to engage in the restitutional activities
The client overcorrects the environmental effects of
the problem behavior
Also decreases problem behaviors in people with
mental retardation
Contingent Exercise
oAnother positive punishment procedure involving the
application of aversive activities
oThe client is made to engage in some form of physical exercise
contingent on an instance of the problem behavior
oIn overcorrection, the aversive activity is a correct form of
behavior related to the problem behavior (positive practice) or a
behavior that corrects a disruption to the environment created
by the problem behavior (restitution)
oIn contingent exercise, the aversive activity involved physical
exercise unrelated to the problem behavior (without harm)
Guided Compliance
oWhen a person is engaging in a problem behavior in a
compliance situation (the person is instructed or asked to
engage in an activity), guided compliance can be used
oThe person is guided physically through the requested activity
(such as an educational task) contingent on the occurrence of a
problem behavior
oFor most people, physical guidance in a noncompliance situation
is an aversive event
oOnce initiated, physical guidance is withdrawn if the person
begins to comply with the requested activity
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oBecause the withdrawal of the physical guidance is contingent
on the occurrence of the requested activity (compliance),
compliance is negatively reinforced
oGuided compliance serves two functions:
Positive punishment of the problem behavior because the
aversive stimulus (physical guidance) is applied after the
problem behavior
Negatively reinforces compliance with the requested
activity because the aversive stimulus is removed after
compliance
oMoreover, if the problem behavior is negatively reinforced by
escape from a requested activity, the guided compliance
procedure removed the reinforcer (escape) and thus involves
extinction
Physical Restraint
oContingent on the problem behavior, the change agent holds
immobile the part of the clients body that is involved in the
behavior
oAs a consequence, the client is physically restrained from
continuing to engage in the problem behavior
oFor many people, having their movement restrained is an
aversive event and acts as a punisher
oHowever, for some people physical restraint may act as a
reinforcer
oTherefore, it is important to determine whether physical
restraint will function as a punisher or as a reinforcer for a
particular person before planning to use physical restraint
oVariation of physical restraint: Response Blocking
The change agent prevents the occurrence of a problem
behavior by physically blocking the response
As soon as the client initiates the problem behavior, the
change agent blocks it so that the client cannot complete
the response
Can be used with brief restraint; in this case, the change
agent blocks the response and then uses physical
restraint for a brief period
Caution in the Application of Aversive Activities
oThe application of aversive activities should be used only when
the change agent can provide physical guidance
oThe change agent must anticipate that the client may resist the
physical guidance, at least initially, and must be certain that
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Description
Chapter 18 Positive Punishment Procedures and the Ethics of Punishment Application of Aversive Activities An aversive activity is a low-probability behavior the person typically would not choose to engage in A problem behavior is decreased by the contingent application of aversive activities Contingent on the problem behavior, the person is made to engage in the aversive activity This form of positive punishment is based on the Premack principle, which states that when the requirement to engage in a low-probability behavior (the aversive activity) is made contingent on the occurrence of a high-probability behavior (the problem behavior), the high- probability behavior will decrease in the future Although an aversive stimulus is an environmental event that can be a punisher, an aversive activity is a behavior that can be a punisher for another behavior A person will try to avoid or escape from performing the aversive activity therefore, the change agent often has to use physical guidance to get the person to engage in the aversive activity contingent on the problem behavior When applying an aversive activity as a positive punisher, the change agent instructs the client to engage in the aversive activity immediately contingent on the problem behavior Types of Positive Punishment Procedures that Use Aversive Activity Overcorrection o Developed to decrease aggressive and disruptive behaviors exhibited by people with mental retardation in institutional settings o The client is required to engage in an effortful behavior for an extended period contingent on each instance of the problem behavior o Two forms: Positive Practice The client has to engage in correct forms of relevant behavior contingent on an instance of the problem behavior The client engages in the correct behavior, with physical guidance if necessary, for an extended www.notesolution.com
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