PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Aaron T. Beck, Mary Cover Jones, Ethology

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20 May 2016

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Chapter 1: Introduction
What is Behaviour?
Behaviour: behavior is anything that a person says or does. Technically, behavior is any muscular, glandular, or
electrical activity of an organism
Products of behaviour: the results or consequences from behaving a certain way
oE.g. getting an A because of good work ethic (4.0 GPA = product; Work ethic/studying = behaviour)
Overt behaviour: behaviour that can be observed by individuals
Covert Behaviour: cannot be readily observed; thinking and feeling; private self-talks (thinking in words); aka
cognitive behaviour
Dimension of Behaviour = Characteristics of behaviours that can be measured; duration = length of a behaviour;
intensity/force = effort/energy involved in emitting behaviour
Summary Labels for Behaviour
Summary labels  e.g. nervous, carefree, honest, serious, intelligence, attitude, creativity  very general OR
psychological problems (e.g. ASD, depression, anxiety, road rage, low self-esteem etc.)
oIntelligence: used as adjective/adverb, not a noun for behaviour mod (e.g. she write intelligently) to
describe how people behave in certain circumstances
oCreativity: e.g. creative person emits unique/novel behaviour with desirable effects
quickly provide general info about performance
imply certain treatment may be effective for this label of behaviour
pseudo-explanations/circular reasoning
Negatively affect the way an individual might be treated, such as by focusing on an individual’s
problem behaviors rather than strengths.
Specific dimension s of behaviour  chewing on lips, looking to the left constantly, fidgeting, looking down etc.
All problems described as behaviour deficits OR behaviour excess to
oAvoid problems of summary labels; focus on behavioural concerns, not the label; specific procedures
available to improve behaviour (aka behaviour modification)
oDetermining excess or deficits depends on context, but some are inherently excess or deficits (e.g. self-
harm behaviour)
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