PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Natural Environment, Reinforcement

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22 Jun 2016

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Chapter 4 – Increasing Behaviour with Reinforcements
Positive Reinforcement (Table 4.1)
A reinforcer that causes a specific behaviour to increase its frequency.
Reinforcer is followed immediately from the situation to increase likelihood of that behaviour
Operant behaviours: behaviours operate in environment to generate consequences are in turn influenced by
oPositive reinforcers -- increases behaviour; punishers – decrease behaviour
Positive Reinforcement versus Negative Reinforcement
Negative: increasing a response to REMOVE of certain/aversive stimuli immediately (e.g. remove nagging by
doing chores)
o**Different from punishment  punishment decreases that behaviour, while reinforcer increase
Factors influencing the Effectiveness of Positive Reinforcement
1. Selecting Behaviour to be Increased
a. Identified specifically; ensure reliability of detecting instances; measurable behaviour
b. Ensuring reinforcement program applied consistently
2. Choosing Reinforcers
a. Every individual has different reinforcers; should use one that is most effective
b. 5 Reinforcers:
b.i. Consumable; activity; manipulative; possessional; social
c. Use a reinforcer questionnaire/menu to understand their likes/dislikes (Table 4.2).
d. Premack Principle – use something that occurs highly to a behaviour that occurs not-so frequently to
increase that not-so frequent behaviour (e.g. always on computer and not doing homework, then limit
their computer time to increase their likelihood of doing homework)
e. All reinforcers involve external stimuli and internal aspects
3. Motivating Operations
a. Longer deprivation period of the reinforcer, the more effective the reinforcement will be
b. E.g. a starving person much more motivated to eat than someone who just ate
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