PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 25: Token Economy, Weaning

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13 Aug 2016
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Chapter 25
Token economies – behavioural program in which individuals can earn tokens for a variety of desirable
behaviours and can exchange the earned tokens for backup reinforcers
- Tokens are conditioned reinforcers
- Longstanding approach in behaviour modification
Advantages
- Tokens can be given immediately following desirable behaviour
- Tokens can be paired with multiple different backup reinforcers (generalized conditioned
reinforcers)
oUseful for diverse groups, with different reinforcer preferences
Used in many different types of settings
- Academic
- Healthcare
- Community
- Family home, etc.
Setting up a token economy
- Decide on the target behaviour(s) - Clearly defined and identifiable
- Gather baseline data - Can help with selecting backup reinforcers
- Select backup reinforcers - Use a wide variety and take ethical considerations into account
- Select the type of tokens to use - Some desirable characteristics: Durable; easy to handle and
manage; difficult to steal and counterfeit
- Identify available help/support
- Choose the location (if relevant)
- Management of consequences
oEnsure tokens and backup reinforcers are on hand
oClearly describe the criteria for earning and exchanging tokens
oAward tokens as immediately as possible
oUse reinforcers such as praise with tokens
oKeep accurate records
oTrain those administering tokens
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