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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Notes

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 11: Chaining
Behavioral chain is a complex behavior consisting of many component behaviors that occur together in a
sequence.
Example of Behavioral Chain
When you want a piece of gum of chewing gum, you have to engage in a sequence of responses.
o1. Reach into your pocket
o2. Pull out the pack of gum
o3. Pull a single stick out of the pack
o4. Unwrap the piece of gum
o5. Put the gum into your mouth
You can engage in a particular behavior in the sequence only if the previous behavior in
the sequence has been completed.
Analyzing StimulusResponse Chains
A behavioral chain is often called a stimulusresponse chain. Each behavior or
response in the chain produces a stimulus change that acts as an SD for the next response
in the chain.
o1. SD1 (pack of gum in your pocket) -> R1(Reach into your pocket)
o2. SD2 (your hand in your pocket) -> R2 (Pull out the pack of gum)
o3. SD3 (pack of gum in your hand) -> R3 (Pull a single stick out of the pack)
o4. SD4 (one stick of gum in your hand) -> R4 (Unwrap the piece of gum)
o5. SD5 (unwrapped stick of gum in your hand) -> R5 (Put the gum into your mouth) ->
reinforcer (chewing gum)
A five-component stimulus-response chain can be illustrated in the following way:
oSD1 -> R1
SD2 -> R2
SD3 -> R3
SD4-> R4
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SD5 -> R5 -> reinforcer
We can make the outcome of the chain more reinforcing by means of an establishing operation.
In our first example, the establishing operation makes the gum more reinforcing at a certain time,
and this increases the likelihood that you will start the behavioral chain.
The establishing operation might be having a bad taste in your mouth, having just smoked a
cigarette etc.
Task Analysis
The process of analyzing a behavioral chain by breaking it down into its individual stimulus-
response components is called a task analysis.
If your goal is to teach a complex task involving two or more component responses (a behavioral
chain) to a person, the first step is to identify all the behaviors that are necessary to perform the
task and write them in order.
Next, you identify the SD associated with each behavior in the task.
Because teaching the task to the person involves discrimination training with each stimulus-
response component of the behavioral chain, you must have a detailed task analysis that gives you
an accurate understanding of each stimulus stimulus-response component.
A task analysis to identify the right sequence of behaviors in a chain may be conducted in various
ways:
o1. Observe a person engage in the task and record each of the stimulus-response components.
o2. Ask an expert (a person who performs the task well) to explain all the components in the task.
o3. Perform the task yourself and record each of the component responses. This provides the best
information about each response involved in the task and the stimulus associated with each
response.
Once you have developed your initial task analysis, you might have to revise it after you start
training. You might find that you can break some behaviors down into component behaviors, or
that you can combine two or more behaviors into a single behavior.
For some learners, the five-step task analysis might be more appropriate; for others, the three-step
task analysis might be more appropriate.
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The only way to determine whether you have the correct number of steps is to determine how
well the task analysis works for a particular learner.
The next step is to choose a strategy for teaching the skill. Strategies for teaching complex tasks
are called chaining procedures.
Chaining procedure involve the systematic application of prompting and fading strategies to each
stimulus-response component in the chain. (Backward chaining, Forward chaining and total task
presentation)
Backward Chaining
Backward chaining is an intensive training procedure typically used with learners with limited
abilities.
With backward chaining, you use prompting and fading to teach the last behavior in the chain
first.
Once the last behavior is mastered (once the learner exhibits the behavior on presentation of the
SD, without any prompts), you teach the next to last behavior.
This continues until the learner can exhibit the whole chain of behaviors when presented with the
first SD, without any prompts.
An Example of Backward Chaining
Task Analysis
o1. SD1 (staff member says, Jerry, lets play darts) R1 (Jerry walks over to the
dartboard)
o2. SD2 (standing near a line on the floor 8 feet from the dartboard) R2 (Jerry walks up
to the line and stands facing the dartboard with his toes touching the line)
o3. SD3 (standing at the line with a dart on an adjacent table) R3 (Jerry grasps dart
between thumb and first finger, with the point facing the board)
o4. SD4 (standing at the line and holding dart between thumb and first finger) R4 (Jerry
bends his elbow, so that the forearm is at a 90-degree angle)
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Description
Chapter 11: Chaining Behavioral chain is a complex behavior consisting of many component behaviors that occur together in a sequence. Example of Behavioral Chain When you want a piece of gum of chewing gum, you have to engage in a sequence of responses. o 1. Reach into your pocket o 2. Pull out the pack of gum o 3. Pull a single stick out of the pack o 4. Unwrap the piece of gum o 5. Put the gum into your mouth You can engage in a particular behavior in the sequence only if the previous behavior in the sequence has been completed. Analyzing Stimulus Response Chains A behavioral chain is often called a stimulus response chain. Each behavior or D response in the chain produces a stimulus change that acts as an S for the next response in the chain. D o 1. S 1 (pack of gum in your pocket) -> R1(Reach into your pocket) o 2. S 2 (your hand in your pocket) -> R2 (Pull out the pack of gum) D o 3. S 3 (pack of gum in your hand) -> R3 (Pull a single stick out of the pack) o 4. S 4 (one stick of gum in your hand) -> R4 (Unwrap the piece of gum) D o 5. S 5 (unwrapped stick of gum in your hand) -> R5 (Put the gum into your mouth) -> reinforcer (chewing gum) A five-component stimulus-response chain can be illustrated in the following way: o S 1 -> R1 D S 2 -> R2 S 3 -> R3 D S 4-> R4 www.notesolution.com
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