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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB51H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier

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Chapter 6: Space Perception and Binocular Vision
Realism: philosophical position arguing that there is real world to sense
Positivism: all we really have to go on is evidence of senses, so world might be nothing more than an
elaborate hallucination
Euclidean: geometry of the world
oParallel lines remain parallel as they are extended in space, objects maintain some size and shape
as they move around in space, internal angles of a triangle always add to 180 degrees, so forth
Retinal images is non-Euclidean
Becomes non-Euclidean when 3D world projects onto curved, 2D surface of retina
Retina area occupied by object gets smaller as objects moves farther away from eyeball
Reconstruct world from 2 non-Euclidean inputs: 2 distinct retinal images
i.e. left/right index fingers
o2 retinal images always differ because retinas are in slightly different places
Visual field about 190 degree from left to right, 110 degree by both eyes
Binocular summation: combination of signals from each eye in ways that make performance on many
tasks better with both eyes than with either eye alone
Binocular disparity: differences between 2 retinal images of same scene
oDisparity basis for stereopsis, a vivid perception of 3D of world that is not available with
monocular vision
Stereopsis: ability to use binocular disparity as cue to depth
oNot necessary condition for depth perception or space perception
Monocular depth cues: depth cue available even when world viewed with one eye alone
Binocular depth cue: depth cue on information from both eyes
oi.e. stereopsis in humans, but convergence and ability of 2 eyes to see more of an object than one
eye sees are also binocular depth cues
Monocular Cues to Three-Dimensional Space
Occlusion
Gives information about the relative position of objects
Present at almost every visual scene
Accidental viewpoints: shape can happen to be shaped like that and not blocked by another shape
Occlusion is a non-metrical depth cue: information about depth order but not depth magnitude
Metrical depth cue: provides quantitative information about distance in 3D
Size and Position Cues
Image on retina formed by object out in world gets smaller as object gets farther away
Projective geometry: describes how world is projected onto surface
oI.e. shadow is projection of object onto a surface
Relative size: comparison of size between items without knowing the absolute size of either one
Texture gradient: items of same size form smaller images when they are further away
oAppear to form a surface in depth
Relative height: observation that objects at different distances from viewer on ground plane will form
images at different heights in retinal image
oObjects further away will be seen as higher in image
Familiar size: knowledge of typical size of objects like humans or pennies
Relative metrical depth cues: object A was twice as far away as object B without providing information
about absolute distance to either A or B
Absolute metrical depth cue: absolute information about the distance in 3D (his nose sticks out 4cm in
front of his face)
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Description
Chapter 6: Space Perception and Binocular Vision Realism: philosophical position arguing that there is real world to sense Positivism: all we really have to go on is evidence of senses, so world might be nothing more than an elaborate hallucination Euclidean: geometry of the world o Parallel lines remain parallel as they are extended in space, objects maintain some size and shape as they move around in space, internal angles of a triangle always add to 180 degrees, so forth Retinal images is non-Euclidean Becomes non-Euclidean when 3D world projects onto curved, 2D surface of retina Retina area occupied by object gets smaller as objects moves farther away from eyeball Reconstruct world from 2 non-Euclidean inputs: 2 distinct retinal images i.e. leftright index fingers o 2 retinal images always differ because retinas are in slightly different places Visual field about 190 degree from left to right, 110 degree by both eyes Binocular summation: combination of signals from each eye in ways that make performance on many tasks better with both eyes than with either eye alone Binocular disparity: differences between 2 retinal images of same scene o Disparity basis for stereopsis, a vivid perception of 3D of world that is not available with monocular vision Stereopsis: ability to use binocular disparity as cue to depth o Not necessary condition for depth perception or space perception Monocular depth cues: depth cue available even when world viewed with one eye alone Binocular depth cue: depth cue on information from both eyes o i.e. stereopsis in humans, but convergence and ability of 2 eyes to see more of an object than one eye sees are also binocular depth cues Monocular Cues to Three-Dimensional Space Occlusion Gives information about the relative position of objects Present at almost every visual scene Accidental viewpoints: shape can happen to be shaped like that and not blocked by another shape Occlusion is a non-metrical depth cue: information about depth order but not depth magnitude Metrical depth cue: provides quantitative information about distance in 3D Size and Position Cues Image on retina formed by object out in world gets smaller as object gets farther away Projective geometry: describes how world is projected onto surface o I.e. shadow is projection of object onto a surface Relative size: comparison of size between items without knowing the absolute size of either one Texture gradient: items of same size form smaller images when they are further away o Appear to form a surface in depth Relative height: observation that objects at different distances from viewer on ground plane will form images at different heights in retinal image o Objects further away will be seen as higher in image Familiar size: knowledge of typical size of objects like humans or pennies Relative metrical depth cues: object A was twice as far away as object B without providing information about absolute distance to either A or B Absolute metrical depth cue: absolute information about the distance in 3D (his nose sticks out 4cm in front of his face) www.notesolution.com
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