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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB51H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier

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Chapter 11: Music and Speech Perception
Music
Music shown to have deep physiological effects
High levels of neurotransmitter serotonin responsible for negative aspects of emotion and mood
Musical Notes
Pitch: psychological quality of perceived frequency
Octave: when one of 2 periodic sounds is double frequency of other, 2 sounds are one octave apart
Equal temperament: set of notes used commonly in Western music
Because of octave relations, musical pitch typically described as having 2 dimensions:
oTone height: relates to frequency in fairly straight for ward way
oTone chroma: related to octave
Musical pitch can be visualized as helix
oFrequency and tone height increase with increasing height on helix
oCircular laps corresponds to changes in tone chroma
Chords: r icher, complex sounds
oCreated when 3 or more notes are played s imultaneously
2 distinc tions:
oConsonant: combinations of notes in which ratios between note frequencies are simple
2:1 ratio
3:2 perfect f ifth
4:3 perfect four th
oDissonant: less elegant ratios
Making Music
Melody: form by notes or chords
oSequence of sounds perceived as single coherent structure
oTwinkle Star, ABCs, Baa Baa Black Sheep
Melody defined by contour- pattern of rises and declines in pitch, not exactly sequence of sound
frequencies
Tempo: average duration of set of notes in melody
oRelat ive durat ions w ithin sequence of notes are critical part of melodies themselves
Speech
Vocal tract: airway above larynx us ed for production of speech
oIncludes oral tract and nasal tract
Human larynx low in throat than animals
oMore susceptible to choking
oCannot shallow and breathe at same time
Speech Product ion
Production of speech has 3 basic components:
oRespiration (lungs)
oPhonation (vocal cords)
oArticulation (vocal tract)
Speaking f luently requires impressive degree of coordina tion among the components
To initiate speech sound, diaphragm pushes air out of lungs through trachea up to larynx
Larynx, air pass through 2 vocal folds, made up of muscle tiss ue that can be adjusted to vary how freely
air pass- phonation
Rate vocal cords vibrate depends on stiffnes s and mass
Articulation: producing speech using vocal tract
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Description
Chapter 11: Music and Speech Perception Music Music shown to have deep physiological effects High levels of neurotransmitter serotonin responsible for negative aspects of emotion and mood Musical Notes Pitch: psychological quality of perceived frequency Octave: when one of 2 periodic sounds is double frequency of other, 2 sounds are one octave apart Equal temperament: set of notes used commonly in Western music Because of octave relations, musical pitch typically described as having 2 dimensions: o Tone height: relates to frequency in fairly straight forward way o Tone chroma: related to octave Musical pitch can be visualized as helix o Frequency and tone height increase with increasing height on helix o Circular laps corresponds to changes in tone chroma Chords: richer, complex sounds o Created when 3 or more notes are played simultaneously 2 distinctions: o Consonant: combinations of notes in which ratios between note frequencies are simple 2:1 ratio 3:2 perfect fifth 4:3 perfect fourth o Dissonant: less elegant ratios Making Music Melody: form by notes or chords o Seque
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