Chapter 6 Interconnections Between Acquisition & Retrieval

53 views5 pages
Published on 17 Feb 2012
School
Department
Course
Professor
c

@ There are variations in retrieval: either recognize or recall
@ The conscious experience of À
Learning As Preparation for Retrieval
@ Learning, you͛re making connections between the newly acquired material and other representations
already in your memory, making knowledge, ͞findable͟ later on
@ These become  ʹ when you want to retrieve information from memory you travel on
those paths, moving from one memory to the next until you reach the target material
@ ëan find cases in which someone͛s learning is excellent preparation for one sort of retrieval, but useless
for other types
State-Dependent Learning pg 169
@ Godden and Baddeley (1975): scuba divers
@ Underwater, the world has a different look, feel, and sound, and this influences what thoughts come to
mind for divers in the situation
@ ëonnecting these with the words learned in the information
@ But this doesn͛t mean all the information is lost ʹ there may be other links, some other memory
connections that will lead back to the target memories, but still at a disadvantage to being at the same
place
@ Data showed that recall was best if done in the room in which the initial learning took place
@ Interesting occurrence: if you get participants to recall the room they first learned the material in, they
performed as well as they would if they were in the same place = therefore not physical but
psychological context that makes the effect
ëhanges in One͛s Approach to the Memory Materials pg. 171
@ Recall performance is best if someone͛s state (internal and external) at the time of testing matches his
state at the time of learning
@ ë: a benefit to memory; improved memory performance if we re-create the
context has its effects
@ Pair words either in terms of meaning or sound ʹ will be cued the same way
@ Thinking about the meaning led to better recall! ʹ advantage of 30.5%>21.5%; meaning people who
thought about memory remembered about 50% more than people who thought about sound
@ The match effect wins over the levels-of-processing effect ʹ the advantage for deep processing is simply
overturned in this situation
Encoding Specificity pg 172
@ What goes into your memory is not just a record of those words but it is what͛s in your memory 
some record of what you were thinking about in response to the words = words plus set of connections
@ This extra material in your memory can influence your search for the target information; can change the
 of what is remembered o memory plus set of connections is different from memory and
 kind of connections
@ : the tendency, when memorizing, to place in memory both the materials to be
learned and also some amount of the context of those materials; as a result, these materials will be
recognizes as familiar, later on, only if the materials appear again in a similar context
@ Memory hint will be effective only if it was congruent with what was stored in memory
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
@ Encoding is specific ʹ not just the physical stimulus as it was encountered, but the stimulus together
with its context
@ In learning new material, you establish a memory that can be retrieved in a certain way, from a certain
perspective and if perspective changes o the original memory may not be retrieved
Different Forms of Memory Testing pg174
@ uinformation with clues to get memory or  when memory is given to us and we must
decide whether it is the sought out information or not
@ u: the task of memory  in which the rememberer must come up with the desired materials,
sometimes in response to a cue that names the context in which these materials were earlier
encountered (͞Name the pictures you saw earlier͟), sometimes in response to a question that requires
the sought-after information
@ Requires memory  because you have to come up with desired info on own
@ Depends on memory connections ʹ retrieval paths ʹ to search for info
@ u: the task of memory  in which the items to be remembered are presented
and the person must decide whether or not the item was encountered in some earlier
circumstance; thus, for example, one might be asked, ͞Have you ever seen this person before?͟
@ ͞Hybrid͟: you͛ll make a  response because you can  an earlier episode
@ : having recollection of the  of your current knowledge
@ : having a strong sense of familiarity helps make an inference about a memory; dangerously
inaccurate when trying to get something right
@ ÷: attribute familiarity to an earlier encounter and thanks to the attribution, you respond
correctly on a recognition test
Familiarity and Source Memory
@ Two-part theory of recognition, with recognition depending on À or 
@ ùou can have one without the other
@ Source memory without familiarity is less common (ex. ëapgras Syndrome)
@ Distinguishable biologically: in  distinction recognition test
@ Hippocampus = remember (source)
@ Anterior parahippocampus = know (familiarity)
@ Distinguished in :
@ Rhinal cortex = active during learning of something that will be familiar later (know) o means the
area plays role in establishing familiarity
@ Hippocampal region = active during learning of something that will offer a ͞remember͟
response to a stimulus later o plays role in establishing source memory
Implicit Memory
@ : shown a string of words, must decide quickly if they are words in English or not;
͞looking up͟ strings in their ͞mental dictionary͟
@ First exposure might prime for the secondary encounter ʹ does it?
@ Lexical decisions are much faster if person has recently seen the test word = lexical decision shows a
pattern of  (pattern of that occurs simply because a stimulus is presented a
second time; processing is more efficient on the second presentation)
@ This occurs outside of consciousness of knowing that they encountered these words ʹ ͞memory without
awareness͟
@ *: people are given a beginning of a word and must provide a word that starts
with the letters provided
@ More likely to choose words they͛ve already seen
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

There are variations in retrieval: either recognize or recall. Learning, you re making connections between the newly acquired material and other representations already in your memory, making knowledge, findable later on. These become retrieval paths when you want to retrieve information from memory you travel on those paths, moving from one memory to the next until you reach the target material. Can find cases in which someone s learning is excellent preparation for one sort of retrieval, but useless for other types. Underwater, the world has a different look, feel, and sound, and this influences what thoughts come to mind for divers in the situation. Connecting these with the words learned in the information. But this doesn t mean all the information is lost there may be other links, some other memory connections that will lead back to the target memories, but still at a disadvantage to being at the same place.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.