Chapter 6.docx

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Chapter 6 Interconnections Between Acquisition and Retrieval
Learning as Preparation for Retrieval
- Why is there a relationship b/w particular way you learn and particular form of memory retrieval? when
you’re learning, you make connection help you make new knowledge “findable” serve as retrieval paths
State-Dependent Learning
- State-dependent Learning:
i.e. Godden and Baddeley: Asked scuba divers to learn various new
material while sitting in dry land v/s underwater hearing
information on a set
Underwater has a different feel makes diver cold “cold-related
thoughts” now connected to target materials
Diver on land will have other link but wont’ have “cold-related
thought” triggered
- Memory is best if olfactory environment is the same during memory
retrieval during initial learning (for odours present or absent during
- Psychological context is consistent with account of this effect
Changes in One’s Approach to the Memory Materials
- Context reinstatement: Improved memory performance if we re-create context in place during learning,
has effect b/c influence how person think about material to be remembered
i.e. Fisher and Craik: Present participants in
word pairs and instructed to learn second word
in each pair and use first word as “aid” (i.e. dog
and cat)
Participants either given hint with meaning or
hint with sound.
Results: Thinking about meaning leads to better
memory people who thought about meaning at
the same time of learning remember 50% more.
If participants thought about meaning at the
time of learning did better
- Deep conditioning is invalidated
Encoding Specificity
- Encoding specificity: One encodes specifically stimulus together w/ context
i.e. participant read target words in two context (i.e. piano “The man lifted the piano” or “The man tuned the
piano” target word in specific way (is the piano heavy or a musical instrument?)
When asked to recall target word given hint “something heavy” or “nice sound” nice sound effective, heavy not
- What’s in participants’ memory is the stimulus-as-understood the stimulus w/ appropriate mental context
- You establish a memory that can be retrieved in a certain way, from certain perspective if change, then original
memory might not be achieved
- Good learning depends on later events
Different Forms of Memory Testing
- What is the nature of the memory
- Recall” Presented w/ cue that broadly identifies info but we need to come up with information on our own
- Recognition: Information is presented to us and we decide whether to seek after or not (waste or useful)
- Recall requires memory search and memory connections
- Forms of learning the promote connections are useful for recall testing more likely to happen if during the
original learning you thought about relationship b/w materials to be remembered and other aspects of learning
- Recognition is a “hybrid”
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- Some cases have source memory do not have any
recollection of source of current knowledge but strong
familiarity & willing to make inference about where
familiarity comes from
- Attribute familiarity to earlier and b/c of attribution, you
respond to relevant answer
Familiarity and Source Memory
- 2 part theory, with recognition depending on familiarity and
on source memory, 2 types of memory
In these cases, you cannot place the memory but are you able
to recognize faces (familiarity without source memory)
- Source memory w/to familiarity: Capgras syndrome: Patient has accurate memories but no sense of familiarity
and faces
- Participants in recognition test: Remember/Know Distinction: Pressing 1 button (remember) or press
different button (know but don’t recall)
- Heightened activity in hippocampus for remember (FMRI)
- Heightened activity in anterior parahippocampus for familiarity (FMRI)
- Familiarity and Source Memory can be distinguished during learning Certain brain areas (rhinal cortex) play
key role in familiarity; while other brain areas (hippocampal area) are active in learning remember response
Implicit Memory
Memory Without Awareness
- How can we find out if someone remembers a previous event? Ask them or exposé them to an event
- In many studies, participants asked to read through list of words w/ no indication of memory test. Participants
given lexical-decision task show series of letter strings and must indicate fi word is English or not
Results Lexical divisions are quicker if person if person has seen the test word lexical division sows pattern of
repetition priming
- In other studies, participants asked to read list of words and give test of tachistoscopic recognition identify the
word and say what word is some words were presented during procedure’s initial phase while others were not
shown/novel. Does earlier exposure influence performance?
Performance is IMPROVED if participants have recently viewed words
- Word-stem completion: People given 3-4 letters and produce a word with this beginning (i.e. CLEA clam, class
or clatter are acceptable)
People are more likely to offer specific word if encountered with it recently priming effect is observed
- 2 types of memory
1. Explicit Memory Revealed by DIRECT MEMORY TESTING (testing to remember past)
2. Implicit Memory Revealed by INDIRECT MEMORY TESTING (influenced by prior events but unaware)
False Fame
- Jacob, Kelley, Brown and Jasechko: Participant list names to read out loud , not told about memory test; then
participants given second step of procedure show new names and asked to rate each person on list according to
how famous each was (famous names and fictional names names occurred on prior list, and some new names)
For some, famous list presented after pronunciation list, others had 24-hour delay (might not recalling
pronunciation list)
Created false judgments of fame by feeling of familiarity produced (“rings a bell”)
Implicit Memory and the “Illusions of Truth”
- How broad is potential for misinterpreting implicit memory
- Participants in 1 study Hear statements and judge how interesting they are. After, presented more sentences
and judged credibility of sentences
Some sentences were repeats in previous presentation
Sentences heard before were more likely to be accepted as true familiarity increased credibility
- Illusion of truth: Statements were judged to be more credible than sentences never heard before
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