PSYB57H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Reca, Internal Fixation

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17 Mar 2012

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Chapter 5 The Acquisition of Memories and the Working-Memory System
The Route into Memory
- Learn about acquisition of new memories, leaving discussion of storage and retrieval for later
- Good learning depends on how the memory is used later one
- We cannot separate claims about memory acquisition form claims about memory storage
- Information processes: Complex events such as learning, remembering, or deciding actually involve large
numbers of discrete steps, occur one by one, each with its own characteristics
The Modal Model
- Modal Model: Information processing involves
different kinds o memory, 2 are short-term and
- Short term memory: Information currently in
- Working Memory: Emphasizes the function of
this memory, all mental task involves inputs or
sequences of steps that are stretched out in
time short-lived memory demand
- Long-term memory (LTM): Contains all of
information you remember; memories, childhood, facts of various topics
Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: One Memory or Two?
- Free recall procedure: Free to report the words in any order they choose
- People remember 12-15 words in test
First few words on list primacy effect
Last few words on list recency effect
- Serial Position: U shaped curve describing the relation b/w position w/I the series and likelihood or
- The proposal is that list’s ending is still in WM when list ends WM is easy to retrieve source of frequency
- Primacy effect comes from different source
- Transfer of material from WM LTM
depends on processes that require time and
- Memory Rehearsal: Hear word, repeat
over and over again
- Words later in list receive less attention
need to divide attention so each fraction
receives limited fraction of effort
- Serial-position curve leads to other prediction
model claims that recency portion of curve is
coming from WM, while other items on the list
are from LTM
- any manipulation of WM should recall recency
- A slower list presentation should have no
influence on WM performance slowing list
presentation improves retention of all pre-
recency items but does not improve recency
- Recency and pre-recency portions of curve
are open to separate sets o f influences and
obey different principles
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A Closer Look at Working Memory
The Function of Working Memory
- All mental activities requires coordination of several pieces of information
- Work on bits integrate into full package
- Information currently in use or likely to be needed soon is held in working memory
- Larger working memory capacity = more efficient reader
The Holding Capacity of Working Memory
- Digit-span task: People read series of digits and repeat tem back if successful, given slightly longer list
and if successful will continue until person starts to make errors
- Memory holds “7 Plus-or-minus 3” items may be misleading
- Miller proposed that working memory holds 7 plus-or-minus chinks not affixed quantity of information
i.e. imaging hearing list like ,O,P,T,R,A,S,L,U” – “HOP TRA SLU)
- Effort is required to repackage material and less attention is available to rehearse these items
The Active Nature of Working Memory
- Language of modal model implies that WM is like box where information is stored - techinique learning is a
matter of transferring information form 1 position to another
- Should think about how we measure memory’s capacity – designed to count the number of “slots” in working
memory method does little to measure working memory’s capacity to do things with these slots
- Operation span design to measure efficiently of working memory when it is “working”
i.e. “Due to his gross inadequacies, his position as director was terminated abruptly. It is possible that life did not
arise on the Earth at all
Need to remember last sentences store material while working with other material juggling of processes
- Performance is likely to reflect efficiency with which working memory will operate in more natural settings
The Working-Memory System
- Also evident in another way actual structure
- WM is a system built out of several components
Central executive multipurpose processor capable of running many different operations real work
Serves as “information holder” – temporary
Helpers is visuospatial buffer 0 used for storing visual material
Articulatory rehearsal loop used for storing verbal material
The Central Executive
- Though that certain processes are need to control sequence of our thought s and actions serve to select and
launch specific response, planning and setting of goals and step needed to resist falling into habit/routine
- Function of WM: Mental processes need to control mind’s processes ARE the central executive; put different, the
central execute is just another name we give for the uses of these cognitive resources
- Patients w/ frontal lesions show pattern of goal neglect relying on habitual response even if those response
won’t move them toward goal
- Perseveration: Pattern emerges in many aspects of patients’ behaviour and involves strong tendency to
produce the same response over and over
- When patients w/ frontal lobe damage are asked to make a copy of drawing they do preserve many features but
the patient drew copy with no particular plan in mind
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