Chapter 14 Textbook Notes

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5 Dec 2010
PSYB64: An Introduction to Physiological Psychology
Chapter 14: Emotion, Reward, Aggression, and Stress
- Emotion = has 2 major components t physical sensation (quick heartbeat) and a conscious subjective
experience/feeling (scared)
- Emotions usually show valence = positive/attractive or negative/aversive reaction to object/event
Evolution of Emotion
- Charles Darwin studied facial expressions in humans/primates t concluded that emotional expression much
have evolved
- Advantages of emotion = contribution of general arousal to trigger response
o Can also be a disadvantage because when emotions are too high, response can be affected t e.g. being
really stressed out and do bad on exam
- Emotions manage approach/withdrawal behaviours to environmental stimuli t advantage for survival
- Emotions enhance our communication t nonverbal communication = use of facial expressions, gestures, and
body language to communicate ideas/feeling
Emotion Expression and Recognition
- Humans pay most attention to facial expressions t mostly in the eyes
- Movement of human face controlled by 2 cranial nerves
o facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) t controls superficial muscles attached to skin primarily responsible for
o trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) t controls deeper facial muscles attached to bones of head t for
chewing and speaking
- facial nerves have 5 major branches t serve different portions of face
- facial nerves originate in 2 facial nuclei = located on either side of the midline in the pons, controls facial nerves
~}v[}uuµv]]ly with each other)
o facial nuclei receives input from primary motor cortex in precentral gyrus of frontal lobe and from
several subcortical motor areas
- uppers 3rd of face controlled differently than lower 2 thirds of face
o upper 3rd = input from both ipislateral and contralateral facial nerves
o lowers 2 thirds = input from contralateral facial nerve
- 2 major pathways control facial expression:
o Input from motor cortex responsible for voluntary expression
o Subcortical system = for spontaneous expression
Volitional/voluntary facial paresis/paralysis = condition where ability to express voluntary
emotion is impaired
Wl]v}v[] = impairment in subcortical motor structures, substantia nigra, and basal
ganglia t lose ability to smile spontaneously but can smile on command = aka emotional facial
paresis because of impair spontaneous emotions
- Darwin said emotions have strong biological basis
- Some emotional are universal across all cultures = anger, sad, happy, fear, disgust, surprise, contempt,
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PSYB64: An Introduction to Physiological Psychology
- Z]ov[]o]Ç}Æv}Pv]Ìu}]}vÀo}]vPµo]uo]vt influenced little by experience
(even in blind children)
- MZ twins more similar than DZ twins in age they begin showing fear in strangers
- Presence of others influence intensity of emotional expression
- Individuals (inds) have different levels of emotional reactivity and emotional style (positive/negative emotional
- Deliberate lying is hard because it uses a lot of STM t short term memory
o ho}}(^µu_v^µZ_UZÀ]((v}µUoµ}(ZvPµ, inappropriate
smiling/laughing, swing feet, lack of eye contact
- Polygraph = lie-detector test based on measures of autonomic arousal
o Somewhat unreliable
- &µv]}voDZ/[vµ}ZvPes in brain activities when lying
- '[µ^]v(]vP]v]vP_}u]v}Pv]]}v}(]uvÀ]v
Theories of Emotion
- James-Lange Theory = physical state provides cues for identification of emotional state
o Sequence of events produce emotional experience
o E.g. cry when sad, tremble when scared
o Sometimes difficult to tell difference between fear and sexual arousal t seen in men crossing a swaying
bridge with an attractive woman
o Imitating facial expressions might contribute to empathy = ability to relate to feelings of another person
t v}Pv]Ì}Zo[u}]}vu}ooÇ](}µÆ]}vZuZ]
o Catharsis = relief of tension through expression of emotion t e.g. a good crying will make you feel
better, holding in anger will only make it worse, etc. but recent studies show that expressing an emotion
is more likely to enhance than reduce to feeling
- Cannon-Bard Theory = simultaneous activation of physical responses and recognition of subjective feeling occur
o E.g. seeing something scary will trigger fear and fight/flight response
- Schachter-Singer Theory = general arousal leads to cognitive assessment of context t leads to identification of
emotional state
o Like James-Lange t u}]}vµo(}uµv}(Àvµ}v[v](]}(ZÇ]o
responses for each emotion
o Stimulus 1st produces general arousal, then make conscious appraisal of circumstances which allows us
to identify subjective feelings
- Somatic marker = association formed between stimuli and resulting patterns of physical activation
Biological Correlates of Emotion
- Emotional states accompanied by complex/interacting physical responses use activity of ANS, amygdale,
cingulated cortex, and cerebral cortex
- Autonomic Nervous System = controls many activity of organs and glands t participates in general arousal of
emotional states
o Sympathetic NS = for fight-or-flight response
o Parasympathetic NS = for resting activities t good digestion, repair body tissues, etc.
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